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GIFT  OF 
HORACE  W.  CARPEOTKER 


MACAO: 

The  Holy  City; 

The  Gem  of  the  Orient  Earth ; 

By 

J,  Dyer  Ball,  M.  R.  A.  S, 

Author  of 
Things  Chinese, 

The  Cantonese  Made  Easy  Series, 

How  to  Write  Chinese, 

Hakka  Made  Easy, 

&c.,      &c.,      &c., 


Printed  by 
The  China  Baptist  Publication  Society 

Canton. 

All  Rights  Reserved 
1905 


OTHER  WORKS  BY  THE  SAME  AUTHOR. 


Price. 

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"The  San  Wui  Dialect" 0.50 

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"The  Hong  Shan  or  Macao  Dialect" 0.50 

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"The  English-Chinese  Cookery  Book,"  (out  of  print) . .    — 
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Registered  at  the  office  of  the  Registrar-General,  Hongkong, 
in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  Ordinance  No.  2  of  1888. 


546207 


CONTENTS 

Table  of  Contents. 1. 

Geographical  position 1. 

Census 2. 

City  walls 3. 

The  Barrier 4. 

The  Praia  Grande 6. 

The  Streets 7. 

Camoens  Grotto 8. 

The  Public  Gardens 15. 

Public  Offices,  &c., 15. 

The  Post  Office 16. 

The  Senate  House 16. 

Markets 18. 

Churches,  &c., 18. 

Chinese  Temples 26. 

Forts 29. 

Hospitals 33. 

Santa  Clara 37. 

Schools 37. 

Clubs 40. 

Monuments 40. 

Fountains 43. 

The  Flora 44. 

Green  Island 44. 

Tamtsai  snd  Colowan 45. 

Lappa 47. 

The  Ten  Tables 48. 

The  Silver  Valley 48. 

Pak  Shan  Leng 50. 

The  Hot  Springs 51. 

The  Island  of  San  Joao 53. 

History ;    55. 

Government 62. 

Communication 64. 

Jinrickshaws 66. 

A  Tribute  to  Camoens 67. 

Errata 68. 

Index..  ..71- 


Geographical  Position 


The  Portuguese  Colony  of  Macao  is  situated  on  a  rocky 
peninsula  in  the  Heung  Shan  (Fragrant  Hills)  District 
in  the  Kwong  Chan  Prefecture  of  the  Kwong  Tung,  or 
Canton  Province,  in  the  south  eastern  part  of  the  Empire 
<>f  China.  This  peninsula  forms  the  most  southerly  point 
of  the  large  Island  of  Heung  Shan,  this  latter  being  one  of 
the  countless  islands  lying  in  the  estuary  of  the  Canton 
River  on  its  western  side.  Macao  is  situated  in  22  degrees. 
11  minutes,  30  seconds,  N.  lat.  and  113  degrees  32  minutes, 
oO  seconds,  E.  long.  It  and  Hongkong,  from  which  it  is 
distant  40^  miles  in  a  westerly  direction,  may  be  considered 
as  the  extreme  points  of  the  base  of  an  obtuse  angled 
triangle  of  which  Canton,  distant  some  88  miles  in  a 
northerly  direction,  forms  the  apex,  the  line  drawn  from 
Hongkong,  about  90  miles  in  length,  being  the  hypothenuse. 
The  whole  peninsula  on  which  Macao  is  built  is  about  3 
miles  long  from  the  extreme  point  which  the  steamers 
round  on  passing  from  the  outer  to  the  inner  harbour  to 
the  long  narrow  isthmus  of  sand  where  Macao  is  joined  to 
the  Chinese  empire  and  less  than  a  mile  in  breadth  and 
the  circuit  is  said  to  be  about  8  miles.  On  this  peninsula 
are  two  principal  ranges  of  hills  running  north  and  south 
and  east  and  west  respectively.  They  rise  from  200  to  300 
feet  in  height.  Besides  all  the  hilly  portions  which  lend 
such  a  variety  to  the  coup  d'oeul  and  throw  up  into  prom- 
inence the  public  and  private  edifices  crowning  their 
heights  or  built  on  their  sides,  are  numerous  tracts  of  level 
land  largely  utilised  for  the  erection  of  houses.  Not  only 
does  the  hilly  nature  of  the  peninsula  give  more  variety  to 
the  scene  ;  but  the  chance  of  a  breeze  is  also  enhanced  bv 


the  rising  ground  on  which  the  rows  of  houses  climb  and 
detached  residencies  are  perched.  Several  forts  crown  the 
different  heights  and  churches  as  well  as  other  public  build- 
ings are  by  no  means  wanting. 

Many  a  picturesque  view  is  to  be  obtained,  the  fine  sweep 
of  the  the  Praya  Grande  being  universally  admired. 

The  streets  are  kept  bautifully  clean  and  the  public  and 
private  buildings  are  often  gaily  coloured. 

All  lovers  of  poetry  and  literature  will  cherish  Macao  as 
being  at  one  time,  the  residence  of  the  celebrated  Portuguese 
poet  Camoens.  The  climate  is  pleasant  and  there  is  but 
little  bustle  and  noise ;  so  being  within  convenient  reach  of 
Hongkong  and  Canton  it  forms  a  pleasent  retreat  for  those 
who  are  seeking  rest  and  quiet. 

Census 

The  population  of  Macao  is  composed  principally  of 
Chinese  which  section  is  an  ever  increasing  one  owing  to 
house-rent  being  cheaper  than  in  Hongkong  and  life  and 
property  being  more  secure  under  the  rule  of  the  Portu- 
guese officials  than  under  the  regime  of  the  generally 
rapacious  Chinese  Mandarin  in  Canton  and  its  neighbour- 
hood. This  Chinese  portion  of  the  population  had  increas- 
ed in  the  18  years  between  1878  and  1897  by  11,036. 
A  comparison  of  different  censuses  and  estimates  of  popula- 
tion may  prove  of  interest  as  showing  how  the  once  small 
Portuguese  settlement  has  grown  to  a  large  populous  city 
and  colony. 

A.  D.  1583  Macao  contained  900  Portuguese,  "  besides 
women,  slaves  and  many  hundreds  of  Chinese  children'' 
"and  a  great  many  people  who  came  from  Portuguese 
ports  in  Asia." 

Latter  end  of  the  17th  Century  the  population  of  Macao 
amounted  to  19,500. 

A.  D.  1821,  4557  or  4600. 

A.  D.  1830,  about  4628. 

A.  D.  1824,  5093. 


A.  D.  1874,  Portuguese,  4476;  Foreigners,  78;  Chinese, 
C.3,532 ;  Total,  68,086. 

A.  D.  1897,  Portuguese,  3898  ;  Foreigners,  161  ;  Chinese, 
74,627,  Total,  78,706. 

That  the  number  of  the  Chinese  in  Macao  was  not  larger 
at  first  is  to  be  partly  accounted  for  by  the  policy  pursued 
by  the  Portuguese  in  the  earlier  days  of  the  Settlement  as  it 
was  considered  wiser  to  limit  their  numbers.  By  thus  keep- 
ing  down  the  numbers  in  1697  to  only  those  registered  and 
ordering  all  others  to  leave  the  city  in  three  days,  the  re- 
fractory being  handed  over  to  the  mandarins  as  vaga- 
bonds, it  was  doubtless  hoped  to  keep  Macao  from  being  the 
happy  hunting  ground  of  the  Canton  lower  classes,  from 
the  lawlessness  of  whom,  brought  down  by  hundreds, 
through  the  facilities  of  early  transit,  Hongkong  in  later 
days  has  often  suffered.  This  policy  however,  actuated  by 
the  best  of  motives,  proved  unavailing,  the  landlords  though 
forbidden  by  law  (A.  D.  1749)  to  let  or  sell  their  houses  to 
Chinese,  still  doing  so;  in  consequence  of  which  this  order 
of  the  senate  was  overruled  in  1793. 

City  Walls 

In  the  olden  days  when  Macao  was  growing  into  a  place 
of  greater  importance  it  was  felt  necessary  to  protect  it  from 
the  assaults  of  covetous  enemies  and  it  was  determined  that 
a  wall  should  be  erected  for  that  purpose. 

One  writer  informs  us  that  the  open  consent  of  the 
Chinese  officials  was  first  sought  by  a  deputation  from 
Macao  but  failing  this,  largesses  prevented  the  corrupt 
mandarins  from  awkward  objections  or  a  hostile  attitude 
to  the  undertaking :  so  that  in  A.  D.  1622  a  wall  was  run 
from  the  Monte  (the  height  in  the  centre  of  the  penuisula) 
in  a  north  easterly  direction  to  the  sea  near  St.  Francis 
and,  it  is  stated,  the  work  might  have  been  completed  in 
A.  D.  1626.  This  wall  may  still  be  seen.  It  starts  from 
the  Place  of  Luiz  Camoens.  At  this  point  the  author 
remembers  a  small  arched  gate,  the  San  Antonio  gate, 
(Sam  Pa  Mun)  which  was  closed  at  night.  This  has  now 


been  pulled  down  and  the  road  widened.  From  this  place 
the  wall  runs  along  and  then  up  the  hill  to  the  Monte  Fort 
from  whence  it  runs  down  the  hill  on  the  opposite  side 
where  at  the  foot  there  used  to  be  another  gate,  that  of  San 
Francisco,  now  also  abolished.  The  wall  from  here  runs 
up  the  opposite  hill  towards  the  sea,  to  the  ruined  fort  of 
San  Joao,  whence  it  proceeds  towards  San  Francisco  fort, 
which  lies  at  one  end  of  the  Praya  Grande,  then  running 
along  the  side  of  the  Estrada  da  San  Francisco  down  the 
hill  facing  the  fort,  mentioned  above,  where  it  ends.  Thus 
the  city  was  entirely  closed  on  the  land  side.  Some  Dutch 
prisoners  taken  in  1622  were  employed  in  the  building  of 
this  wall. 

Another  short  city  wall  is  to  be  seen  to  the  south  of  the 
city.  It  runs  from  the  church  on  Penha  Hill  to  the  road 
above  the  disused  Bom  Parto  Fort  or  just  about  opposite 
the  old  Boa  Vista  Hotel. 

The  Barrier 

This  is  the  division  between  Portuguese  and  Chinese 
territory.  It  is  some  distance  along  the  long  isthmus 
which  unites  the  peninsula  of  Macao  to  China. 

To  reach  it  from  the  Macao  Hotel  you  pass  the  Public 
Gardens  at  the  end  of  the  Praya  Grande  on  your  right  hand 
and  keep  straight  on,  passing  a  number  of  Chinese  houses; 
before  quite  reaching  the  end  of  these  houses  you  turn  to 
the  right  and  then  to  the  left  along  a  boulevard,  on  your 
left  being  the  open  Campo  or  a  Chinese  village,  &c.  The 
boulevard  ended  you  pass  in  front  of  barracks  and  then  the 
Governor  of  Macao's  country  house  set  in  a  garden.  You 
keep  on  in  the  same  direction,  bearing  a  bit  to  the  left  until, 
the  road  comes  out  on  the  sea.  Turn  to  the  left  and  follow 
the  road  till  a  road,  leading  directly  to  the  Barrier  Gate. 
down  the  centre  of  the  isthmus,  turns  to  the  right. 

Soon  after  passing  the  Governor's  summer  residence  a 
road  turns  to  the  right  which  leads  to  Cacilha's  Bay  with  a 
pretty  little  sandy  beach.  Above  the  road  and  the  Bay  is  the 
Plague  Burying  Ground,  the  graves  marked  by  wooden 


crosses.  By  this  road  one  may  return  to  the  Praya  Grande  at 
a  distance  of  several  hundred  feet  above  the  sea. 

But  to  return  to  the  road  which  leads  to  the  Barrier. 
Just  before  coming  in  sight  of  the  sea  one  sees  to  the  left 
enclosed  in  a  wall,  the  new  Protestant  Burying  Ground.  The 
old  Protestant  Cemetery  is  below  the  Protestant  Chapel, 
next  Camoen's  gardens. 

Below  the  new  cemetery  are  the  courts  of  the  Macao 
tennis  club. 

Just  before  reaching  the  Barrier  a  short  distance  is  the 
bathing  place,  the  whole  coast  line  here  forming  with  the 
sandy  beach  on  the  seaward  side  a  magnificent  roughly 
semi-circular  bay.  Many  large  fishing  stakes  are  seen  with 
the  hovels  of  their  owners  perched  up  amongst  the  rocks. 
The  whole  of  Macao  seems  dominated  by  forts.  To  the  left 
is  a  large  one,  topping  a  hill,  commanding  the  Barrier,  while 
to  the  left  are  two  small  ones  overlooking  the  sea  and 
Cacilha's  Bay.  Once  on  the  road,  leading  to  the  Barrier,  we 
see  facing  us  the  large  gateway  which  marks  the  boundary 
line.  As  already  said  the  sandy  beach  is  below  us  on  the 
light  with  some  rough  grassy  ground  between.  The  muddy 
shores  of  the  Inner  Harbour  on  the  left  and  on  the  falling 
or  lower  ground  between  the  road  and  the  water,  the  ever- 
industrious  Chinese  market-gardener  has  brought  his  skill 
to  bear  and  the  result  is  beautiful  plots  of  vegetables,  plan- 
ted in  symmetrical  rows,  lovely  in  their  weedless  conditions 
and  green  freshness  to  the  eyes,  but  anything  but  agree- 
able to  the  olfactory  nerves.  Arrived  at  the  gate  a  guard- 
house with  outbuildings  is  seen  on  the  left  on  the  Portu- 
guese side  with  soldiers.  The  gate  itself  is  a  large  arched 
one  with  6  stone  tablets  let  in,  bearing  different  dates  such 
as  22nd  August  1849,  22nd  August  1870  and  31st  October 
1871.  The  remains  of  an  old  wall  is  seen  on  each  side  of 
the  gate,  though  not  now  continuous.  The  cause  of  the 
Barrier  Wall  being  made  in  A.  D.  1573  was,  so  it  was  stated, 
for  the  protection  of  the  country  (China)  and  to  prevent 
Chinese  children  from  being  kidnapped.  A  few  Chinese 
soldiers  and  an  officer  guarded  the  door  of  communications, 


6 

which  was  called  by  the  Portuguese  Porta  do  Cerco,  so  that 
no  stranger  might  pass  the  boundary.  At  first  the  door  was^ 
only  opened  twice  a  month,  then  every  fifth  day  for  the 
purpose  of  selling  provisions ;  after  that  it  opened  at  day- 
light .  The  tables  are  now  turned  ;  for  this  old  gate  wan 
destroyed  in  some  of  the  wars  and  the  present  gate  is  a  large 
foreign  structure  with  a  guard  house  of  Portuguese  at  it. 

Beyond  the  Barrier  there  appears  to  be  a  piece  of  neu- 
tral ground.  The  distinction  between  occidentalism  and 
orientalism;  between  civilisation  and  barbarism ;  between 
the  European  and  the  Asiatic  is  noticeable  at  once  :  for  the 
well-made  Portuguese  road  is  at  once  changed  for  the 
wretched  little  foot  path,  meandering  hither  and  thither, 
rugged  and  uneven  never,  properly  made,  unkept  and  un- 
cared  for,  running  through  a  perfect  necropolis  of  poorer 
graves ;  or,  at  the  very  best,  irregularly  paved  with  long 
granite  slabs  unevenly  laid  and  further  allowed  to  sink  to 
all  angles. 

The  Praia  Grande 

One  of  the  most  enchanting  scenes  in  Macao  is  that  of 
this  beautiful  bay,  quiet  and  graceful  sweep  of  sea  wall  and 
rows  of  houses  rising  up  the  gentle  slopes  and  the  ancient 
forts  and  modern  public  buildings  dotted  here  and  there, 
while  behind  all  rise  the  Mountains  of  Lappa  and  to  the 
right  those  beyond  the  Barrier.  All  descriptions  are  imper- 
fect; some  fail  from  an  attempt  to  liken  this  beautiful  little 
gem  with  another  world-renowned  spot,  the  Bay  of  Naples. 
Let  it  be  acknowledged  at  once  that  each  is  sui  generis  and 
attempt  no  comparison.  There  is  no  doubt  when  coming 
in  from  sea  towards  Naples  and  trying  to  detect  Macao  in 
Naples  one  does  see  a  faint  resemblence  in  one  of  the  house- 
c-lad  hills  of  the  latter  to  Macao's  central  portion ;  but  ra- 
ther let  one  be  content  with  enjoying  the  beauties  of  each 
and  attempt  no  belittling  of  the  grand  proportions  of  the 
one  or  try  to  greaten  the  sweet  gem-like  curves  and  colour* 
of  dear  old  Macao.  As  an  instance  of  what  the  artistic  eye 
finds  in  the  latter  we  quote  from  a  short  account  of  Macau 


appearing  in  the  u  Dublin  University  Magazine  "  for 
1848:— 

"A  view  of  Macao  from  the  sea  is  exquisitely  fine.  The 
semicircular  appearance  of  the  shore,  which  is  unencumber- 
ed and  unbroken  by  wharfs  or  piers  [there  are  one  or  two 
small  landing  places  projecting]  and  upon  which  the  surge 
in  continually  breaking  and  receding  in  waves  of  foam, 
whereon  the  sun  glitters  in  thousands  of  sparling  beams, 
presents  a  scene  of  incomparable  beauty.  The  Parade 
[Praia  Grande]  which  is  faced  with  an  embankment  of  stone, 
fronts  the  sea  and  is  about  half  a  mile  in  length.  A  row  of 
houses  of  a  large  description  extends  along  its  length,  *  *  * 
Home  are  coloured  pink,  some  pale  yellow  and  others  whit.e 
The  houses,  with  their  large  windows  extending  to  the 
ground  *  *  *  with  curtains.  *  *  convey  an  idea  to  the 
visitor  that  he  has  entered  a  European  rather  than  an 
Asiatic  seaport.  This  idea  becomes  still  stronger  by  tin; 
constant  ringing  of  the  church  bells  and  passing  and  repass- 
ing  of  *  *  priests  clad  in  cassocks  and  three-cornered 
hats.  But  this  illusion  is  quickly  dispelled  when  the  eye, 
turning  towards  the  sea  beholds  the  mumerous  sampans  and 
mat-sail  boats  *  *  *  ,  or  glancing  shore  wards  rests  upon 
figures  clad  in  Chinese  costume. " 

Unfortunately  the  outer  Harbour  on  which  the  Praya 
(•Jrande  faces  is  shallow  and  any  large  vessels  which  may 
call  at  Macao  have  to  lie  some  miles  from  the  shore  in  the 
offing.  The  Inner  Harbour  lying  between  the  Peninsula 
and  the  Island  of  Lappa  affords  a  secure  harbour,  but,  un- 
fortunately it  has  been  silting  up  with  mud  for  many 
years  past.  Of  late  years,  however,  a  dredger  has  improved 
matters.  The  Praya  on  the  Inner  Harbour  presents  a 
great  contrast  to  the  other  Praya  for  whereas  quiet  reigns 
on  the  seaward  one,  the  inland  one  is  all  bustle ;  rows  of 
Chinese  vessels  are  anchored  off  the  shore  and  boats  and 
sampans  line  the  banks  on  which  coolies  are  busy  loading 
or  unloading  cargo  to  carry  into  the  stores,  shops,  and 
wholesale  Chinese  merchants'  places  of  business  on  this 
Menduia  Praya  or  into  the  back  streets. 

The  Streets 

To  those  interested  in  watching  the  life  of  the  oriental 
brought  into  sanitary  order  the  busy  streets  of  the  Chinese 


8 

town  will  afford  walks  which  will  engage  all  their  attention, 
while  the  quainter,  quieter,  lanes,  alleys,  tiny  squares  and 
larger  Plazas  will  give  a  piquancy  and  zest  and  afford  a 
striking  contrast  to  the  bustle  of  the  business  quarters. 

"  The  exceedingly  narrow  and  tortuous  formation  of  the 
streets  gives  considerable  pleasure  to  a  ramble  through 
Macao,  shades  away  the  sun  when  it  is  not  at  90  degrees 
and  reminds  you  of  pictures  you  have  seen  of  old  Spanish 
and  German  towns." 

In  contrast  with  these  narrow  and  tortuous  old  street* 
are  the  newer  roads  and  the  boulevard  recently  formed  on 
what  used  to  be  the  Campo  without  the  City  walls  and  below 
the  Guia  Fort  and  light  house.  Here  rows  of  trees  have 
been  planted,  chunam  or  cemented  walks  made  under  or 
between  them  with  beds  of  flowers  and  a  bandstand  where 
a  military  band  discourses  fine  music  once  or  twice  a  week. 

Of  late  years  Macao  after  a  period  of  stagnation  has  been 
much  improved  by  new  roads  laid  out  over  the  Campo  and 
about  the  hills.  A  grand  new  avenue  to  cost  $  300,000 — and 
to  lead  in  direct  line  from  the  Inner  Harbour  opposite  the 
Steamboat  Company's  wharf  to  the  Praya  Grande,  was 
mooted  some  years  since;  but  the  money  has  been  spent  on 
other  improvements. 

Camoen's  Grotto 

It  is  situated  in  the  Casa  Gardens  which  are  entered  by  a 
gateway  in  the  corner  of  the  Plaza  de  Camoens.  On  enter- 
ing, a  small  garden  is  seen  in  front  of  a  large  house;  but 
hearing  off  to  the  right  instead  of  going  to  the  house  and 
descending  some  steps  one  enters  a  large  garden  with  many 
broad  paths  leading  in  different  directions  under  umbrag- 
eous trees,  while  many  ferns  grow  in  the  rocks,  great 
masses  of  which  are  piled  about  in  certain  parts  in  nature's 
wild  confusion.  The  garden  until  recently  was  private 
property  but  a  few  years  sime  the  Portuguese  Government 
bought  it  from  its  owner  for  $35,000.  Since  its  purchase  a 
hand-stand  has  been  erected  and  a  fountain  put  up,  the 
paths  ivoemented  (though  they  still  retain  their  slippery- 


9 

ness  as  in  other  days)  and  ornamental  walks  and  vases  and 
borders  made  at  certain  places  of  little  cubes  or  chips  of 
white  and  red  stone  which  have  a  somewhat  bright  and 
pleasing  effect.  Fortunately  the  Government  has  had  the 
good  taste  not  to  carry  this  ornamentation  to  too  great  an 
extent  and  many  parts  of  the  garden  are  delicious  in  their 
wild  condition.  In  one  on  two  places,  especially  in  one 
corner  of  the  garden,  gigantic  boulders  are  piled  one  on  the 
top  of  the  other  and  a  banian  is  perched  on  the  topmost, 
while  it  sends  its  roots  down  in  a  perfect  network  over  the 
masses  of  rocks  on  their  way  to  mother  earth,  for  the  sus- 
tenance which  the  unique  position  of  the  tree  prevents  it  from 
absorbing  otherwise.  On  one  of  the  mass  of  rocks  thrown 
together  in  wild  confusion  was  a  small  terrace  where  one 
might  sit  and  view  the  landscape  o'er.  A  flight  of  steps  led 
up  to  it;  but  it  has  now  been  removed.  A  circular  building 
with  a  slit  through  its  roof  at  one  side  of  the  garden  overlook- 
ing Inner  Harbour  will  also  attract  attention.  It  was  built 
for  Laperouse  and  in  it  the  scientific  officers  of  his  squadron, 
the  Astrolabe  and  Boussole,  made  astronomical  observations 
during  the  stay  of  those  vessels  in  the  Taipa  in  January 
1787. 

But  the  chief  object  of  interest  in  the  garden  is  the  spot 
where  the  immortal  Portuguese  poet  Luis  de  Camoens  is 
said  to  have  sat  while  composing  part  of  his  great  epic  poem 
the  Lusiads.  The  retreat  of  the  poet  is  not  a  cave,  in  the 
common  acceptation  of  the  term.  On  the  surface  of  a  gentle 
sloping  hill,  and  between  two  large  rocks,  which  seem  to  have 
been  originally  one,  but  now  sundered  a  few  feet  apart  by 
some  one  of  nature's  freeks,  is  the  spot  where  PontugaFs 
noblest  poet  used  to  sit.  Above  the  cleft  rocks,  and  on  them 
rests  a  mass  of  granite,  which  served  the  poet  as  a  covert 
from  the  noonday's  sun  and  stormy  winds.  He  probably 
wrote  the  last  three  Cantos  of  the  Luciads  here. 

With  a  laudable  desire  to  restore  this  favourite  retreat 
of  their  finest  poet,  to  as  near  as  possible  like  he  left  it,  the 
Portuguese  have  removed  a  small  quadrangular  building  in 
the  Chinese  style  of  architecture  which  crowned  the  mass 


10 

of  granite  "resting  above  the  cleft  rocks"  and  which  "com- 
manded a  fine  view  of  the  surrounding  country.  Towards 
cast  you  behold  the  sea  and  the  blue  outlines  of  Lantaoand 
other  islands.  Southward  and  westward  you  view  the  Talpa 
and  Inner  Harbour  *  *  and  various  native  craft.  To  the 
north  is  the  Barrier,  which  forms  a  line  of  demarcation  be- 
tween the  foreigners  and  celestials,  and  beyond  it  Tseen 
Shan  or  Casa  Branca,  a  small  walled  town  and  military 
post"  and  Chinese  customs  station,  "and  behind  which 
stretching  away  in  the  distance,  is  a  meandering  river  and 
innumerable  inlets,"  and  nearer  at  hand  Green  Island, 
Ilha  Verde,  well  worthy  of  its  name.  "The  scenery  altoge- 
ther is  romantic  and  charming."  "The  retreat  of  Camoens. 
at  present  wears  altogether  a  different  aspect  to  what  it  did 
in  the  days  when  the  "poet  hallowed  the  spot."  The  niche 
between  the  rocks  "the  identical  spot  where  Camoens  sat'* 
"is  decorated  with  a  bronze  bust  of  the  poet,  upon  the  base 
of  which,  in  letters  of  bold  relief,  are  records  of  his  birth 
and  death;"  as  follows: — 

Luz  DE  CAMOES 
Neisceo   1524.     Morreo   1580. 

The  bust  bears  evidence,  were  none  other  wanting,  that 
be  was  handsome,  of  fine  form,  with  eyes  glowing  full 
of  life". 

A  number  of  upright  granite  slabs  are  either  in  the  grotto 
itself  or  ranged  in  a  row  outside  it,  bearing  some  of  them 
Cantoes  from  the  famous  Lusiads  while  others  contain 
laudatory  poems  by  different  individuals. 

This  spot  renders  Macao  "classic  ground".  A  short 
account  of  Camoens  may  be  here  interesting.  He  was  the 
most  renowned  of  the  Portuguese  poets  "and  possessed 
talents  of  no  ordinary  character  *  *  He  was  born  at 
Lisbon"  .His  life  seemed  full  of  misfortunes.  He  lost  his 
father  in  early  life  and  the  greater  part  of  his  family  pro- 
perty at  the  same  time.  His  mother  had  him  educated  at 
the  university  of  Corinbra.  Returning  to  Lisbon  he  was 
unfortunate  in  love  being  banished  in  consequence  from 
the  court.  He  went  then  as  a  soldier  in  a  Portuguese  fleet 


11 

to  Morocco  where  he  lost  one  eye  in  a  fight.  He  went  to  the 
East  and  settled  after  a  while  at  Goa  and  was  unjustly 
banished  to  Macao  where  "he  lived  happily  and  contented- 
ly" for  five  years  receiving  the  appointment  of  "Provedov 
dos  Defunctos"  somewhat  equivalent  to  the  Official  Adminis- 
trator. He  amassed  a  small  fortune  but  lost  it  all  in  ship- 
wreck only  saving  his  poem  Avhich  he  held  above  his  head 
with  one  hand  while  he  swam  ashore  with  the  other.  He 
finally  returned  to  Lisbon  and  his  Lusiads  were  published  in 
1572.  The  name  of  this  "invaluable  contribution  to  poetic 
literature"  is  derived  from  Lusus,  the  Latin  name  of  Portu- 
gal. It  celebrates  the  discovery  of  India  and  has  beeu 
translated  into  various  languages,  there  being  several  trans- 
lations in  English  and  French,  four  into  Spanish  and  two 
into  Italian.  It  has  also  been  translated  into  Latin  and 
Hebrew. 

On  his  return  to  his  native  land  after  16  years  absence 
his  misfortunes  still  accompanied  him.  He  received  a  small 
pension  from  the  King,  but  he  died  in  absolute  want  in  a 
hospital  at  Lisbon,  the  day  of  his  death  being  unrecorded 
and  his  very  winding  sheet  being  given  out  of  charity  for 
his  grave.  "No  monument  told  the  passing  stranger  of 
his  worth  till  fifteen  years  after  his  decease.  Now  however 
a  splendid  one  perpetuates  his  memory". 

On  the  different  stone  slabs  about  the  poet's  monument 
are  the  following  tributes  to  his  genius  by  men  of  different 
nationalities. 

2nd  Slab  from  left 

Yo  poeta  tambien,  tambien  soldado, 
Si  bien  no  por  la  fama  enaltecido ; 
Tambien  de  hondas  passiones  arrastrado 
Tambien  de  hados  adversos  combalidos 

En  el  altar  a  tu  estro  consagrado 
Menos  angusto  a  fe  que  merecido 
Suspendo  de  mi  amor  esta  memoria 
Tribute  exigno  de  tan  alta  gloria. 

Don  Huiberto  Garcia  de  Luenedo.  1869 


12 
3rd  from  left 

Yasco  le  cui  folici  ardito  antenno 
In  coutre  al  Sol  che  ue  ripartaft  giorus. 
Spiegaric  voie  o  ter  cola  ritorno 
Dove  ogli  var  che  ai  caderoacconuay 

Non  piu  di  to  asuero  near  sostenrio 
Quel  che  fece  al  leictope  chraggo  et  sconno. 
No  che  un  bo  1'aygie  noi  suo  sorggiorne 
Ne  die  piu  vel  subertro  a  coltro  penue 

Et  hor  quelta  est  calti  et  tuon  Luigi 

Lantte  altro  stoude  al  glorioso  velo 

Che  i  tuoi  spaluiati  logai  auliar  meu  lungo 

Ouda  quela  a  qui  statzu  il  nostro  Polo 
Et  achi  foruea  incontra  1'suoi  vessigi 
Per  lui  del  corso  tue  la  funa  agginogo 
Torgunto  Tasso 

On  the  4th  Slab 
SONNET  TO  MACAO 
Gem  of  the  orient  earth  and  open  sea 
Macao  that  in  thy  lap  and  on  thy  breast 
Hast  gathered  beauties  all  the  lovliest 
When  the  sun  smiles  in  his  majesty 

The  very  clouds  that  top  each  mountain  crest 
Seem  to  repose  there,  lingering  lovingly 
How  full  of  grace  the  green  cathayou  tree 
Bends  to  the  breeze  and  now  thy  sands  are  prest 

With  gentle  waves  which  ever  and  anon 

Break  their  awakened  furies  on  the  shore 

Were  these  the  scenes  that  poet  looked  upon 

Whose  lyre  though  known  to  fame  knew  misery  more 


They  have  their  glories  and  earth's  diadems 
Have  naught  so  bright  as  genius  gilded  gems 
Dr.  Hourin  (?) 
Macao  3oth  July  1849 

On  the  5th  Slab 

"Oh  gruto  de  Macao  soidao  querida 
"Onde  tao  doces  horas  de  tristeza 
"Do  sandado  pasaei!  grata  benigna. 


13 

*'Que  escutaste  metis  languidos  suspires; 
"  Que  ouniste  minhas  queixas  namoradas, 
"Oh  fresqui  dao  amena,  oh  grato  asylo 

"Onde  me  far  acoltar  de  aserbas  magoas 
"Onde  amor,  onde  a  patria  me  inspiraram 
"Os  mariosos  sous  e  os  sons  terr ivies 

"Que  hao  de  afifrontar  os  tempos  o  a  injustica ; 
"Tu  guardaras  no  seio  os  meus  queixumes, 
"  Que  contaras  as  provindouras  eras. 

"Os  segredos  d'amor  que  me  escutaste, 
"E  tu  diras  a  ingratos  Portuguezes 
"Se  portuguez  ou  fui,  se  amei  a  patria, 

"Se  alem  d'ella  e  d'amor,  por  outro  objecto 
"  Meu  caracao  bateu,  lucton  meu  braco 
"  On  modulon  meu  verso  eternos  Carmes 

Viscoude  D' Almeida  Garrett 

At  the  back  on  a  slab  let  into  the  side  of  one  of  the  sup- 
porting boulders  is  the  following: — 

Patane,  lieu  charmant  et  si  cher  au  Poete, 

Je  n'oublierai  jamais  ton  illustre  retraite: 

Ici  Camoes,  au  bruit  clu  flot  retentissant 

Mela  1' accord  plaintif  de  son  luth  gemissant 

Au  flambeau  d'Apollon  allumant  son  genie 

II  chanta  les  heros  de  la  Lusitanie; 

Du  Tage,  a  1'urne  d'or,  loin  des  bords  pateruels 

De  bellone  il  cueillet  les  lauriers  immortels. 

Malheureux  exile  cet  emule  d'Homere 

Acheta  son  genie  ;au  prix  de  sa  misere. 

II  posseda,  du  moins  pour  charmer  ses  douleurs, 

I  es  baisers  de  1' Amour  et  les  chants  des  neufs  Soeurs. 

1  AISUS  et  les  Chinois  hor.orent  sa  memoire 

Le  terns  qui  d'etrutt  tout  agrandira  sa  gloire. 

Moi  que  cheris  ses  vers,  que  pleurai  ses  malheurs, 

J'aiuais  a  salmer  ces  bois  inspirateurs 

Je  visitais  cent  fois  cet  humble  et  noble  asyle ; 

Dans  ta  grotte  6  Louis,  mon  coeur  fut  plus  tranquille. 

Agile  plus  que  toi  je  fegas  dans  les  champs 

Et  le  monde  et  mon  coeur  1'envie  et  les  tyrans 

Au  Grand  Louis  de  famveus  Portugais  Domine  caslillane 
Soldat,  religieux,  voyaeur  et  poele  exil'e. 
L' humble  Ixmis  de  Rienzi  Francais  d'oiigine  romaine 
Yoyngeur,  religeux,  soldat  et  poete  expatrie 

30  Mars  (some  designs  between  here)  1827 


14 

On  one  of  the  stones  is  inscribed  the  following  verses 
in  Latin  by  Sir  John  Davis,  Governor  of  HongKong. 

In  cavernam  ubi 

Camoens 

Opus  egregnim  composuisse  fertur. 
Hie,  in  remotis  sol  ubi  rupibus 
Fronnes  per  alias  mollius  incidit, 

Fervebnt  in  pulchram  camoenam 
Ingenium  Camooentis  ardens 

Signnm  poetse  marmore  lucido 
Spirabat  olim,  carminibus  sacrum, 

Parvumque,  quod  vivens  amavit, 

Effigie  decorabat  antrum ; 

Sed  jam  vetustas,  aut  manus  impia 
Prostravit,  eheu!  Triste  silentium 

Regnare  nunc  solum  videtur 

Per  scopulos,  virides  et  umbras ! 

At  fama  nobis  restat — at  inclytum, 
Restat  poetae  nomen — at  ingeni 

Stat  carmen  exemplum  perene, 

^:rea  nee  monumenta  quaerit, 

Sic  usque  Virtus  vincit,  ad  ultimos 
Perducta  fines  temporis,  exitus, 
Redens  sepulchrorum  inaues, 
Mamoris  et  celerem  ruinam 

J.  F.  Davis 
Macaio  1831 

A  writer  thus  gives  his  impressions  of  these  gardens: — 
"  The  gardens  of  Camoens,  the  Portuguese  poet,  are  full  of 
curious  little  surprises  that  would  fill  the  heart  of  a  child 
with  joy,  something  attractive  meets  the  eye  at  every  turn, 
and  the  place  is  full  of  turns,  at  every  one  of  which  some- 
thing appears  which  you  were  not  expecting.  Old  trees 
with  their  roots  in  the  open  air  spread  like  a  network  down 
the  perpendicular  face  of  a  rock,  cause  you  to  start  in  wron- 
der  at  the  way  in  wrhich  the  ramifications  reticulate  into 
each  other".  'The  gardens  are  a  quaint  old  haunt'.  "  On 
the  topmost  watch-tower  you  have  a  view  of  the  Inner 
Harbour  and  the  hills  beyond;  all  around  you  besides  is 
foliage,  and  saving  this  view  the  privacy  is  complete, 
(•lose  to  the  town,  yet  in  effect  far  away  from  it,  you  can 
only  at  intervals  hear  the  confused  hum  that  floats  from 
the  large  city  at  hand". 


15 

The  Public  Gardens 

The  author  remembers  the  site  of  the  Public  Gardens  as 
simply  a  grassy  plot;  but  with  all  the  improvements,  which 
the  Portuguese  have  loved  to  beautify  their  little  Colony,  it 
has  been  laid  out  for  many  years  past  in  flower-beds  with 
numerous  paths,  seats,  a  band-stand,  fountain  and  an  avi- 
ary. The  gardens  are  at  the  city  end  of  the  Praya  Grande 
and  occupy  a  narrow  strip  of  ground,  but  at  the  far  end  a 
piece  of  rising  ground  is  taken  in  as  well.  The  band  plays 
here  once  a  week  on  Thursday  afternoons. 

Public  Offices  etc. 

The  Governor's  town  residence  is  on  the  Praya  Grande 
and  is  a  fine  building.  One  of  the  most  striking  features 
about  the  public  buildings  in  Macao  is  the  clean  state  in 
which  they  are  kept,  affording  often  a  striking  contrast  to 
those  in  Hongkong:  it  is  a  pleasure  to  the  eye  to  rest  on 
the  former.  The  Chinese  even  note  the  difference  and 
animadvert  on  those  in  Hongkong.  This  building  was 
bought  from  the  Baron  do  Cereal. 

About  the  centre  of  the  Praya  Grande  is  situated  the 
building  now  occupied  as  Government  Offices.  It  is  one  of 
the  finest  and  largest  buildings  on  the  Praya  Grande;  and 
was  for  many  years  the  residence  of  the  Governors.  Sr. 
Roza  transferred  his  gubernatorial  dwelling  to  the  fine 
Cereal  Palace,  further  along,  which  is  now  the  Government 
House  of  Macao;  and  the  Judicial  Department  and  that  of 
the  Junta  de  Tazenda  were  moved  into  the  former  head- 
quarters of  the  Governor.  As  sufficient  space  room  for 
the  department  of  the  Procurator  of  Chinese  Affairs  was 
found  in  this  same  building,  it  was  moved  from  its  old 
office,  a  house  belonging  to  the  old  convent  of  Santa  Clara. 

A  guard  is  always  on  duty  at  the  door  of  this  building. 
Entering  and  passing  through  the  Hall,  ,you  ascend  the 
stairs.  In  front  of  you  is  the  court  (a  small  one)  for 
Chinese  litigation,  while  to  the  right  of  it  is  a  large  Court 
kept  in  a  most  clean  and  bright  condition  (forming  a  great 


16 

contrast  to  the  dinginess  and  dirt  of  English  Courts)  where 
the  Supreme  Court  holds  its  sittings.  There  is  a  dais  at 
at  one  end  with  a  row  of  chairs  on  it  behind  a  table.  The 
peristyle  in  front  of  this  building  was  added  amongst  other 
improvements  by  orders  of  the  Viscount  de  San  Januario 
when  presiding  over  the  destinies  of  this  province. 

The  Post  Office 

On  the  Transfer  of  the  Governor's  residence  to  the  Ceroal 
Palace  the  guard  House  at  the  side  of  the  old  building  and 
on  the  other  side  of  the  lane  running  down  to  the  Praya 
Grande  was  available  and  to  the  great  convenience  of  the 
public  was  utilised  as  a  Post  Office.  It  is  a  small  one- 
storied  neat  looking  little  building  having  a  portico  in  front 
supported  by  eight  pillars.  Previous  to  the  governor-ship 
of  Sr.  Roza,  the  Post  Office  was  in  the  hands  of  private 
individuals,  but  he  organised  the  service  and  made  it  a 
department  of  the  Government.  The  letter-box  is  fastened 
on  the  door  by  which  one  enters  into  the  Hall  where  the 
public  may  wait  for  the  distribution  of  letters.  The  back 
part  of  the  building  is  partioned  off  with  glass  and  forms  a 
small  room  where  the  mails  are  sorted,  the  addressees  of 
letters  having  an  opportunity  of  seeing  the  whole  process 
while  waiting  in  the  Hall  for  their  letters. 

There  are  several  letter  boxes  about  the  town  as  well. 
Part  of  the  same  building  occupied  by  the  Post  Office  is 
used  as  a  Government  Telegraph  Office. 

There  is  a  Telegraphic  and  telephonic  connection  between 
Macao  and  Taipa. 

It  may  be  as  well  to  mention  here  that  the  Eastern  Ex- 
tension Australasia  and  China  Telegraph  Co.  have  an 
office  in  a  large  building,  in  one  of  the  inner  streets,  on  the 
gradual  slope  rising  to  the  Penha  Hills;  and  messages  may 
be  sent  hence  to  any  part  of  the  world. 

The  Senate  House 

The  Leal  Senado,  or  Senate  House,  is  a  very  old  building 
though  over  the  front  door  the  date  1876  appears. 


17 

Entering  one  finds  oneself  in  an  oblong  room  or  hall 
v.-ith  a  door  leading  to  a  flight  of  steps  and  over  this  door 
is  the  following  inscription  in  three  lines: — 

Cidade  Do  Nome  De  Deus,  Nao  Ha  Outra  Mais  Leal 

En  Nome  D'el  Rei  Nosso  Senhor  Dom  Joao  IV  Mandou  o 
(-apitao  Geral  d'esta  pra$a  Joao  de  Souza 

Pereira  por  este  Etreiro  cm  fe  da  muita  le  aklade,  quc 
Conhe^u  nos  cidada  d'ella  em  1654. 

This  building  is  that  in  which  the  Government  hold  their 
sessions:  it  is  two  stories  high;  its  base  of  granite,  the  rest 
of  brick  and  mortar  so  also  are  the  pilasters.  The  entabla- 
tuer  rests  on  columns  and  the  cornice  is  ornamented  with 
green  glazed  vases.  This  spacious  fabric  was  erected  in 
1784  and  cost  the  sum  of  80,000  taels.  On  the  ground  floor 
are  the  offices  of  the  Director  of  Public  Works.  Going  up 
the  stone  steps  we  find  on  our  right  hand  over  a  door, 
Secretarix  da  Camara,  i.e.  Secretariat  of  the  Municipal 
Council.  Should  our  polite  request  to  inspect  the  building 
l)e  granted,  we  shall  find  two  very  old  large  paintings  in 
the  first  office:  one  representing  Macao  in  the  olden  days; 
and  one  the  beheading  of  Christian  martyrs  in  Japan.  We 
next  pass  into  two  large  rooms — the  Council  Rooms.  A 
dais,  under  a  red  canopy,  is  at  the  end  of  the  principal  one 
with  the  Portuguese  coat  of  arms  supported  by  two  angels 
and  a  panel  of  carved  and  gilded  wood-work  is  below. 
A  small  room  doing  duty  as  a  chapel  opens  off  this,  con- 
secrated to  our  Lady  of  Conception,  in  which  the  members  of 
the  Senate  hear  mass  before  business.  The  Council  Room 
has  a  number  of  old  fashioned  antique  chairs  in  it  with  red 
cushions,  the  curtains  are  also  red.  There  are  a  number  of 
old  paintings  representing  Portuguese  royalty.  The  Outer 
Council  Room  has  likewise  paintings  of  the  Governors  of 
Macao  hung  round  it. 

On  the  left  hand  side  of  the  stairs  is  the  office  of  the  Ad- 
mimstraQao  do  Concellio.  In  the  ante  room  to  this  aro 
some  very  old-fashioned  leather  chairs. 


IS 

Markets. 

There  are  several  markets  in  Macao,  the  Ban  Domingo.- 
being  the  only  important  one.  Here  we  may  remark  that 
many  of  the  daily  commodities  of  life  are  monopolies  in 
Macao,  the  exclusive  right  to  import  and  export  kerosene 
was  granted  by  tender  in  1894  (to  the  highest  bidder)  for 
$8100  per  annum.  The  late  salt  farmer  obtaining  it  in 
1897  for  $3,000:  and  in  1899  for  $17,000:  there  was  also  a 
gunpowder  monopoly  and  a  rickshaw7  one. 

Churches,  etc. 

One  of  the  most  imposing  structures  in  Macao  is  the  ruined 
facade  of  the  Jesuit  Church  of  San  Paulo  which  is  visible 
from  almost  every  point  of  the  compass.  The  church  was 
burnt  on  January  26th  or  27th  1834  (or  1835?)  A  private 
manuscript  states  that  Francis  Peres  and  a  few  Jesuits  in 
1565  had  a  house  in  Macao  where  those  of  their  Society  used 
to  lodge  on  way  via  Macao  to  Japan.  The  church  which 
was  erected  by  the  Jesuits  on  their  arrival  in  this  part  of 
China  was  accidentally  destroyed  by  fire  and  was  a  noble 
buildingj-noble  indeed  it  must  have  been  if  the  rest  of  the 
structure  was  in  keeping  with  the  grand  and  picturesque 
hoary  ruin  left.  This  Collegiate  church  was  erected  in  1662 
as  expressed  by  an  inscription  engraved  on  a  stone  iixed 
in  the  western  corner  of  the  building: 

Vrgini   Magna  Matri, 

Civias   Macaensis   Lubens, 

Posuit   an.    1662. 

The  Church  was  consecrated  to  'Nossa  Senhora  da  madre 
de  Decs'  like  its  predecessor  (built  circa  1565).  We  cull  the 
following  description  of  it  from  an  old  work  on  Macao: — 

'The  frontispiece  all  of  granite,  is  particularly  beautiful. 
The  ingenious  artist  had  contrived  to  enliven  Grecian  ar- 
chitecture by  devotional  objects.  In  the  middle  of  the  ten 
pillars  of  Ionic  order,  are  three  doors,  leading  to  the  temple; 
then  range  ten  pillars  of  Corinthian  order,  which  constitute 
live  separate  niches.  In  the  middle  one  above  the  principal 
door  we  perceive  a  human  figure,  trampling  on  the  globe, 


IV) 

the  emblem  of  human  patriotism,  and  underneath  we  read 
Mater  Dei.  On  each  side  of  tbe  Queen  of  Heaven,  in  dis- 
tinct places,  are  four  statues  of  Jesuit  Saints.  In  the 
Superior  division  St.  Paul  is  represented,  and  also  a  dove, 
the  emblem  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  In  this  edifice  is  a  clock, 
which  strikes  quarters  and  hours,  and  to  judge  from  an  in- 
scription on  the  principal  wheel,  Louis  XIV  made  a  present 
of  it  to  the  Jesuit  college'. 

This  splendid  facade  is  nearly  intact  though  slightly  tou- 
ched by  the  demolishing  hand  of  time,  and  this  though 
hundreds  of  storms  and  typhoons  must  have  assailed  it 
from  every  quarter  of  the  compass  during  nearly  three  cen- 
turies and  three  quarters.  The  site  of  the  church,  only  some 
walls  being  left  to  mark  its  position,  has  been  used  as 
a  cemetery,  though  unused  for  some  time  now.  A  long 
night  of  steps  leads  up  to  it;  this  flight  contains  130  steps 
of  granite  of  a  width  of  from  60  to  80  feet.  This  church 
was  formerly  the  Cathedral;  standing  thus  on  a  height  uiv 
der  the  walls  of  the  Monte  Fort  it  must  have  been  even  a 
more  conspicusous  land  mark  than  the  present  Cathedral. 
There  are  stories  current  of  subterranean  passages  leading 
from  St.  Paul  to  Green  Island  which  was  formerly  owned 
by  the  Jesuits.  In  1838  the  side  walls,  though  of  great 
thickness,  were  considered  unsafe  and  were  cut  down  to  a 
height  of  22  feet;  the  facade,  which  is  the  most  striking 
object  in  the  view  of  Macao  from  the  harbour,  was  left 
standing.  This  church  took  8  years  to  build  (1594-1602) 
the  Jesuits  who  erected  it  had  early  settled  at  Macao  and 
their  followers  provided  the  funds  to  purchase  a  house  next 
to  this  church;  and  in  this  house  the  Chinese  were  instruc- 
ted and  Portuguese  educated.  Even  before  1594  this  was 
converted  into  an  extensive  Seminary  of  St.  Paul  and 
in  it  often  more  than  'children  of  the  inhabitants'  were 
taught  the  rudiments  of  learning  A  "College  was  afterwards 
founded.  It  had  J\vo  classes  for  Latin,  two  chairs  for 
theology,  one  for  philosophy,  and  one  for  belles  lettres. 
The  circuit  of  the  Seminary  contained  a  large  hall  for  the 
library,  one  for  astronomical  purposes,  and  an  apothecary's 
shop.  Missionaries  going  and  coming  wrere  lodged  in  the 


20 

Seminary  which  could  accommodate  70  or  80  individuals. 
This  celebrated  seat  of  learning  (and  of  political  influence) 
in  the  East  was  broken  up  (1762)  by  order  of  Joseph  I, 
king  of  Portugal,  and  their  members  dispersed." 

It  appears  that  the  church  of  St.  Paul  itself  was  entirely 
built  by  Portuguese  and  Japanese,  the  latter  probably  being 
converts  exiled  on  account  of  their  profession  of  Roman 
Catholicism.  Chinese  are  not  mentioned,  as  at  that  date  in 
Macao's  history  the  Chinese  were  not  employed  by  the 
Portuguese  and  were  only  permitted  to  sell  provisions  du- 
ring the  day  in  Macao  and  having  to  leave  the  City  at  night. 
Vaults  credited  with  containing  treasure  (for  the  Jesuits 
had  gathered  much  wealth  together  and  were  forced  to 
leave  Macao  with  nothing  but  their  breviaries)  are,  it  is 
stated,  known  to  be  under  the  long  flight  of  stone  steps  in 
front  of  the  facade.  And  one  writer  affirms  that  not  only 
subterranean  passages  lead  under  water  a  considerable 
distance  to  Green  Island  or  Priests  Island,  but  also  up  to 
the  Guia  Fort. 

THE  CATHEDRAL 

which  is  also  a  conspicuous  object  from  many  parts  of 
the  City  is  a  large  building  with  two  towers;  one  containing 
a  clock  with  two  faces,  the  other  a  peel  of  three  bells  and  a 
small  one.  It  has  a  ceiling  of  wood,  pulpit  and  six  con- 
fessionals, old  wood  stalls  and  a  curious  old  organ,  a  large 
one  being  in  the  gallery  above  the  main  entrance.  In  one 
of  the  rooms  or  passages  at  the  back  is  an  old  painting  of 
the  crucifixion  of  twenty- three  Roman  Catholic  saints  in 
Japan  in  the  16th  Century  at  Nagasaki.  Two  old  red 
leather  chairs,  like  those  in  the  Senate  House,  arc  placed 
for  the  Governor  and  the  Judge,  with  red  stools.  A  picture 
of  St.  John  the  Baptist  preaching  is  more  real  than  many 
of  the  pictures  in  Roman  Catholic  churches.  The  Cathe- 
dral is  dedicated  to  St.  Peter.  The  principal  district  in 
Macao  derives  its  name  from  the  Cathedral  and  is  known 
jis  the  Bairo  da  Se.  It  is  built  on  the  high  ground  rising 
behind  the  centre  of  the  Praia  Grande. 


21 
ST  LAWRENCE 

The  next  largest  district  in  the  City  is  called  Bairo  de 
St.  Lourenco.  This  church  of  San  Lourenco,  it  is  stated, 
may  have  been  rebuilt  in  A.  D.  1618.  and  within  the  last 
few  years  again  as  the  roof  fell  in  a  few  years  ago.  It  is 
a  large  church,  with  broad  stone  steps  leading  up  to  it,  being 
on  a  higher  level  than  the  road  below.  A  picture  of  the 
saint  is  behind  the  high  altar  with  a  crown  and  dove  de- 
scending from  heaven  on  him.  Two  madonnas,  with  swords 
sticking  in  their  breasts,  and  other  images  and  altars 
abound.  There  are  two  towers  to  it:  one  containing  a  clock 
and  the  other  a  peel  of  three  bells. 

SAN  ANTONIO 

This  smaller  church  is  on  the  Square  of  Luiz  Camoens, 
opposite  to  the  entrance  to  Camoens'  Gardens.  It  was 
burned  down  in  1809  and  rebuilt  by  contributions.  It  con- 
tains the  painting  of  a  martyr  saint  bound  with  cords  and 
shot  at  with  arrows,  which  is  worthy  of  a  longer  glance  than 
the  most  of  the  paintings  in  the  Macao  churches  deserve. 

ST.  JOSEPH 

One  of  the  nicest  churches  in  Macao  is  that  of  San  Jose 
attached  to  the  College  of  that  mame.  Though  built  many 
years  before  that  date  the  Jesuits  to  whom  it  belongs,  had 
not  the  pleasure  of  hearing  mass  in  it  before  A.  D.  1758. 
Architecturally,  the  proportions  of  the  building  are  har- 
monious. The  cupola  is  pierced  with  small,  stained-glass 
windows,  light  is  also  admitted  from  the  front,  while  other 
stained  glass  windows  are  to  be  found  in  the  building.  In 
one  of  the  towers  is  a  chime  of  six  bells  with  an  apparatus 
to  work  them  consisting  of  a  number  of  wooden  handles  (in 
a  framework  of  wood)  and  attached  to  the  bells  by  a  system 
of  rattan  strings.  A  painting  of  St.  Francis  Xavier,  ap- 
parently on  his  deathbed,  is  in  this  church  as  well  as  several 
mural  tablets,  amongst  them  that  of  Gonsalves,  who  was  a 
Professor  in  the  College,  as  well  as  a  Chinese  scholar.  His 
tombstone  consists  of  a  Ions:  black  slab  let  into  the  wall  on 


22 

on  the  left-hand  side,  beyond  the  entrance  from  the  front 
door.     It  bears  the  following  inscription: — 

Hie  jacet  Rever.  D.  Joaquimus  Alfonsns  G  on  salves  Lu- 
citanus  Presbyer  Congregation  is  Missionis  in  regali  Sancti 
Josephi  Maconensi  Collegio  Professor  cximus  Regalis  So- 
cietatis  Asiaticse  solius  extex  Pro  sinensibus  missionibus 
solicitus  petrutitia  opera  amico  lusitano  Lationque  sermono 
composuit  et  in  lucem  alidit  moribus  suavissimo  doctrina 
Prsestanti  integra  vitaque  plenus  diebus  in  Domino  quievit 
sexagenario  Major  quinto  nonas  Octobris  anno  MDCCCXLI. 
In  memoriam  tanti  viri  equs  amici  Jitteraturaeqiie  cultorcs 
Hunc  lapidem  consecravere. 

Exit  can  be  had  to  the  roof  of  the  church  where  a  fine 
view  of  the  city  and  its  surroundings  can  be  obtained: — 
From  the  cupola  standing  on  the  roof,  one  sees  the  front  of 
San  Paulo,  the  Monte  Fort,  the  forts  of  Donna  Maria  II  and 
Monha,  Camoens'  Gardens,  the  hills  beyond  the  Barrier, 
the  Inner  Harbour,  Barracks,  the  Penha  Hills,  Taipa,  and 
other  islands.  On  a  clear  day  the  sea  seems,  beyond  the 
Roads,  almost  locked  in  with  islands;  near  and  in  the  dis- 
lance  they  lie  blue  on  the  horizon, 

In  the  playground  of  the  College,  which  is  at  the  side  of 
the  church,  are  two  large  banyans,  one  of  Falstaffian  pro- 
portions. A  stone  seat  runs  all  round  it,  at  one  or  two  points 
nearly  touching  the  tree.  This  seat  is  about  fifty  or  sixty 
feet  in  circumference.  It  takes  twenty  boys,  joining  hands, 
to  form  a  circle  round  this  ancient  giant.  On  one  of  the 
author's  visits  to  this  spot  he  and  six  of  his  friends  tried  to 
form  a  ring  round  this  tree,  but  it  would  have  taken  four 
more  men  to  complete  it. 

In  this  connection  it  may  be  as  well  to  give  a  short  account 
of  St.  Joseph's  College,  the  Jesuit  clerical  educational  estab- 
lishment, to  which  this  church  is  attached. 

This  college,  the  Royal  College  of  St.  Joseph,  has  been 
termed  the  principal  seat  of  learning  in  Macao.  Founded  by 
the  Jesuits,  at  their  expulsion  in  1762,  its  activity  ceased 
for  twenty  years  when  in  1784  the  Court  of  Lisbon  transfer- 
red this  establishment  to  the  "Congregation  of  Missions"  and 


23 

in  1800  the  charges  to  be  paid  by  the  Senate  were  definitely 
settled.  The  priests  belonging  to  this  college  are  all  Euro- 
pean Portuguese,  commonly  six:  their  superior  is  appointed 
from  Europe.  Of  this  institution,  the  principal  aim  is  to 
provide  China  with  Evangelic  teachers.  Young  Chinese,  not 
exceeding  twelve  in  number,  are  admitted,  and  furnished 
with  what  they  necessarily  want.  If  they  evince  a  sincere 
desire  to  become  priests  their  education  is  directed  that  way; 
but  it  generally  requires  ten  years  before  the  candidates 
can  receive  the  first  order.  Those  whose  vocation  is  dubious 
wait  longer  or  leave  the  college;  others  who  want  application, 
or  are  noted  for  a  misdemeanor,  are  sent  away.  The  Pro- 
fessors give  instructions  in  the  Portuguese  and  Latin  Gram- 
mer,  arithmetic,  rhetoric,  philosophy,  theology,  <fcc.  Many 
children  of  the  inhabitants  participate  in  them  though  few 
of  them  are  made  priests.  The  Chinese  language  is  taught 
and  English  and  French  occasionally.  Parents  who  can  af- 
ford to  pay  for  their  children  small  monthly  remuneration  for 
food  and  a  cell  (sic)  fix  them  at  the  college,  where  the  stu- 
dents learn  to  speak  genuine  Portuguese,  and  acquire  some- 
times a  taste  for  the  improvement  of  their  minds.  Some 
children  dine  at  the  college  and  join  their  families  at  night; 
others  attend  the  lectures  delivered  "gratis"  by  the  Profes- 
sors at  distinct  hours!  So  much  for  an  old  account  of  it. 

The  college  contains  a  large  number  of  class  rooms  and 
spacious  corridors.  It  is  two  stories  high  and  has  a  base- 
ment as  well.  When  the  author  visited  it  a  few  years  since 
there  were  seventy-five  boys  being  trained  to  be  priests, 
thirty-three  of  whom  were  Chinese,  the  rest  being  Portu- 
guese. There  are  two  dormitories,  each  with  twenty-five 
beds,  for  the  Portuguese  boys,  each  boy  having  a  bed  to 
himself.  One  dormitory  serves  for  the  Chinese.  The  col- 
lege buildings  are  put  up  round  three  sides  of  a  square  and 
on  one  of  the  verandahs  there  is  a  photographic  studio. 
The  library,  contained  in  a  small  room,  has  some  600  vol- 
umes in  it,  in  Portuguese,  Latin,  and  English,  £c.  The 
old  library  was  burned.  There  is  a  replica  in  the  library 
of  the  bu?t  of  Camoens.  An  old  bell  is  hung  up  near  ;i 


24 

ilight  of  stairs  bearing  an  inscription  and  the  date  17.1'.*. 
In  the  sitting  room  in  the  college  is  a  painting,  by  a  Chi- 
nese probably,  of  Gonsalves  with  the  following  inscription :- 

O  Revdo.  Pe.  Joaquim  Alfonso  Gonsalves 
da  congregacao  de  S.  Vincente  de  Paulo,  insigne 
sinologo  Portuguez,  nascao  em  Tojal  aos  de  Marco 
de  1781  e  falleceu  no  Seminario  de  8  Jose  de  Macau 
dos  3  de  Outubro  de  1841. 

The  Bishop  of  Macao  has  a  sitting  room  and  bed-room 
on  the  top  floor,  and  the  servants  have  their  quarters  in  the 
basement. 

There  is  a  printing  office  and  book-binding  place  in  tin; 
college.  Books  are  printed  and  published  here,  and  a  week- 
ly religious  newspaper  issued. 

HERMITAGE  OF  PEN  HA 

Though  the  city  his  now  grown  up  to  this  small  church 
yet  when  it  was  first  erected  it  was  so  far  out  in  the  country 
as  to  merit  the  name  of  hermitage.  An  old  writer  thus 
describes  it: — 

"On  the  western  hill,  denominated  Nillau,  the  Augustine 
friars  began  (1662)  the  Hermitage  of  Penha — 'ermida  de 
nossa  Senhora  da  Penha  de  Franca' — devotees  enlarged  it 
in  1624.  Portuguese  ships  going  into  the  harbour  are  ac- 
customed to  salute  the  hermitage  with  a  few  guns.  Its  rev-? 
enue  depends  upon  the  liberality  of  individuals  and  on 
promises  sea-faring  people  occasionally  make  in  an  hour  of 
distress,  to  acknowledge  by  gratuities  the  favour  which  they 
think  the  Virgin  Mary  bestowed  upon  them,  in  preserving 
their  lives  and  property". 

The  view  from  this  church  is  very  tine,  forming  a  coun- 
terpart of  that  from  the  Mongha  fort,  while  yet  many 
features  not  visible  from  that  vantage  point  come  into  view 
from  this.  The  whole  city  lies  spread  out  before  our  feet. 
In  the  distance  the  hills  in  Chinese  territory  with  the 
graceful  sweep  of  the  Barrier  isthmus  and  the  old  gateway, 
a  trifle  nearer  rises  the  Mongha  Fort,  then  in  the  mid- 
distance  the  square  old  Monte  Fort,  covering  the  top  of  tin- 


25 

hill  it  is  placed  on,  and  cutting  out  of  view  the  valley  and 
the  Campo  which  He  behind  it.  Then  a  dip  in  the  hills, 
which  rise  again,  crowned  by  the  Guia  Lighthouse  and  its 
encircling  fort,  while  the  ground  appears  to  fall  towards  the 
sea  at  the  extreme  end  of  the  Praya,  the  Gap  being  hidden 
by  the  hills,  capped  by  the  ruined  fort  (which  has  lately 
being  repaired)  beneath  which  stands  the  Military  Hospital; 
next  come  the  San  Francisco  Barracks  and  Fort  of  San 
Francisco  and  the  neat  little  Gremio  down  on  the  Praya. 
Then  the  beautiful  curve  of  Praya  Grande  itself,  which  ends 
at  the  Bom  Parto  Fort,  nearly  below  us,  but  a  little  to  the 
right.  Behind  the  Praya  the  ground  rises  again  and  a 
ruined  garden  enclosed  in  stone  walls  is  below  us.  The 
Cathedral,  some  distance  off,  is  a  prominent  object  though 
by  no  means  picturesque,  the  ruined  portico  of  San  Paulo 
forming  a  much  more  pleasing  subject  for  the  eye  to  rest 
on.  This  is  to  the  left  of  the  Monte.  Still  somewhat 
distant,  and  somewhat  to  the  left,  is  the  green  grove  which 
we  know  to  be  Camoens'  Garden  and  the  muddy  waters 
of  the  Inner  Harbour  are  still  further  to  that  side,  broaden- 
ing out  in  the  distance  with  a  panorama  of  hills  as  a 
background.  Its  hither  shores  are  lined  by  the  Chinese 
quarters  of  the  town.  In  the  mid-view  rises  St.  Joseph 
with  its  cupola  and  further  off  San  Lorenzo  is  seen. 

There  are  a  number  of  other  churches  in  Macao,  but  none 
that  call  for  any  special  mention.  They  are  San  Lazaro, 
Santa  Clara,  in  connection  with  the  old  Convent  of  that 
name,  San  Agostino,  opposite  the  theatre  and  San  Dornin- 
gos  which  is  near  the  entrance  to  the  square  at  the  opposite 
end  of  which  is  the  Senate  House.  The  facade  of  this  is 
distinctly  Iberian  in  character. 

There  is  a  small  chapel  in  the  Guia  Fort — the  'ermkla  da. 
nossa  senhora  da  Guia,  or  Neves'. 

THE  ENGLISH  CHURCH 

The  English  church  is  in  the  Plaza  do  Luiz  Camoens 
No.  11,  next  the  entrance  to  Camoens'  Gardens.  It  is  a 
small  chapel,  seating  about  forty  persons.  There  are  two 


26 

mural  tablets:  one  to  the  memory  of  Mr.  Endicott  and  one 
to  Mr.  H.  D.  Margesson.  Below  the  church  at  the  back  is 
the  old  Protestant  Cemetery.  Here  lie  the  remains  of 
many  who  were  well  known  in  the  early  days  of  English 
intercourse  with  China.  Amongst  the  graves  may  be 
noticed  those  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Morrison,  D.  D.,  F.  R.  S.. 
first  Protestant  missionary  to  China,  who  arrived  in  that 
land  in  1807,  and  who  founded  the  Anglo-Chinese  College 
in  Malacca,  an  institution  which  did  much  good  in  its  day. 
He  likewise  made  the  first  translation  of  the  Bible  into 
Chinese,  prepared  a  Chinese-English  Dictionary  and  other 
works.  He  was  also  employed  as  a  translator  by  the  Hon- 
ourable East  India  Company  and  after  living  a  quarter  of  a 
century  in  the  East,  died  in  Canton  in  1834.  The  grave  of 
George  Chinnery,  the  painter,  who  lived  many  years  in 
Macao,  is  to  be  noted;  and  those  of  the  English  Admiral. 
Sir  Philip  le  Fleming  Senhouse,  who  died  at  Hongkong  in 
1841,  and  from  whom  Mount  Senhouse,  on  Lamina  Island, 
near  Hongkong,  is  named.  Also  that  of  the  Right  Honour- 
able Lord  Henry  Churchill,  Captain  of  H.  M.  S.  "Druid", 
fifth  son  of  the  late  Duke  of  Marlborough.  Also  the  grave 
of  J.  R.  Morrison,  a  distinguished  Interpreter  in  the  early 
days  of  European  intercourse  with  China. 

The  New  Protestant  Cemetery  is  out  near  the  Barrier, 
near  to  Bella  Vista.  On  the  slopes  of  Bella  Vista  are  some 
old  English  graves,  one  being  that  of  an  infant  son  of  Dr. 
Morrison.  Time  has  worn  off  most  of  the  inscriptions. 
(One  or  two  old  graves  of  former  English  residents  are  to 
be  found  in  Camoens'  Garden. )  There  are  eleven  of  these 
old  tombstones,  belonging  to  the  century  before  last  and 
the  first  half  of  last  century.  There  are  graves  of  Protes- 
tant English  and  Germans,  who  were  not  allowed  to  be 
buried  within  the  precincts  of  the  Holy  City.  The  hill  was 
then  called  the  Meersberg. 

Chinese  Temples 

There  is  one  Chinese  temple  within  and  three  without  lli 
limits  of  the  city.     In  short  there  are  several  of  them  about 


27 
Macao,  and  worthy  of  a  visit  by  the  curious. 

THE  A  MACAO  TEMPLE 

The  temple  near  the  inner  harbour  is  remarkable  for  its 
situation.  A  mass  of  gigantic  boulders  are  heaped  together 
by  Nature  in  chaotic  confusion  and  at  their  feet  are  the 
main  buildings  of  the  temple  while  stone  steps  lead  up 
amongst  the  masses  of  the  rock,  amidst  which  here  and 
there,  are  perched  different  buildings  and  shrines.  Inscrip- 
tions are  cut  in  the  rocks,  and  stone  seats  are  placed  on  the 
little  terraces,  which  occupy  every  coin  of  advantage,  grudg- 
ingly granted  by  the  great  granite  boulders. 

In  the  main  building  of  the  temple  is  a  very  good  model 
of  a  Chinese  junk  with  wooden  anchors,  &c.,  complete.  The 
goddess  came  from  Foochow  to  Macao  in  the  junk  of  which 
this  is  a  model,  after  various  oppositions  made  to  her  de- 
parture. One  of  the  signs  that  she  should  go  was  the  falling 
ill  of  all  the  sailors  with  colic.  The  sword  of  a  large  sword- 
fish  is  also  preserved  in  this  temple  as  a  thank-offering 
presented  by  a  fishing-junk  for  a  fruitful  season  in  fishing. 
This  temple  which  is  known  as  the  Amacao  Temple,  or  that 
of  'The  Lady  of  the  Celestial  Chambers',  had  its  beginning 
about  A.  D.  1573,  when  a  Fukienese  ship  becoming  unman- 
ageable at  sea,  all  perished  but  one  sailor,  a  devotee  of  the 
goddess,  Matsopo,  who  embracing  her  sacred  image  with  the 
determination  to  cling  to  it  was  rewarded  by  her  powerful 
protection,  according  to  his  own  belief,  and  preserved  from 
perishing.  The  ship,  driven  through  the  storm,  weathered 
it,  and  the  devoted  sailor  landed  at  Macao  and  built  on  this 
spot  a  temple  at  the  hillock  of  Amako,  as  being  the  best 
situation  he  could  find  for  the  only  temple  to  his  patron 
saint  which  his  slender  means  would  permit  of  his  erecting. 

Fifty  years  after  an  Imperial  Messenger  in  the  course  of  a 
dream  had  the  locality  of  a  lake,  containing  many  and 
valuable  pearls  revealed  to  him  by  the  goddess,  and  in  gra- 
teful acknowledgement  of  the  great  favour  thus  granted 
him,  he  built  a  temple  on  the  spot  to  her. 

The  origin  of  the  present  congeries  of  buildings  was  due  to 


28 

Kukienese  and  Tiuchiu  merchants  subscribing  7000  taels  to 
build  some  more  fitting  shrines  for  the  favourite  object  of 
their  worship.  The  upper  temple  is  dedicated  to  the  God- 
dess of  Mercy;  the  middle  one  is  styled  The  Temple  of 
Universal  Benevolence;  while  the  lower  one  is  named 
Amako. 

THE  MONGHA  TEMPLE. 

This  is  a  historically  interesting  spot,  as  here  the  first 
treaty  between  the  United  States  and  China  was  signed  on 
the  3rd  of  July  1844;  and  also  here  in  1849  the  head  and 
arm  of  Governor  Amaral  were  hidden  in  ashes,  after  he  had 
been  massacred  at  the  Barrier  by  the  Chinese.  This  temple 
H  at  a  little  distance  along  the  lane  that  is  at  the  back  of 
the  New  Protestant  Cemetery.  It  has  a  blank  wall  at  each 
side.  Entering  the  garden,  one  finds  oneself  in  a  large  open 
space,  behind  which  are  the  several  buildings  composing 
the  temple.  In  these  buildings  are  to  be  found  the  Three 
Precious  Buddhas,  a  goddess  riding  on  an  elephant  and 
other  idols.  Chinese  frescoes,  some  in  relief,  adorn  the  place: 
one  of  them  representing  The  Fat  Buddha  with  a  pack  of 
boys  playing  with  and  teasing  him,  though  such  a  god,  the 
personification  of  good-nature,  is  evidently  too  good-natured 
to  be  teased.  A  garden  is  attached  to  the  place,  and  in  it 
there  is  some  curiously  ornamented  tiling,  the  figures,  &c., 
being  in  high  relief;  but  which  is,  however  in  rather  a  dila- 
pidated condition. 

MA  KAU  TEMPLE 

Under  the  curious  little  fort  of  Donna  Maria  II,  a  rocky 
point  runs  out  into  the  sea,  and  just  above  the  rocks  is  a 
very  small  temple  to  the  Goddess  of  Heaven.  It  depends 
for  its  revenue  partly  on  a  tax  on  fishing-boats1,  which  it 
levies,  but  the  silting  up  of  the  water  in  the  bays  has  caused 
this  revenue  to  decrease  of  late  years:  the  temple  is  one  that 
has  been  in  existence  for  some  hundreds  of  years. 

It  is  from  these  rocks,  the  Ma  Kau  Rocks,  that  Macao 
takes  its  name.  A  path  leads  down  to  the  temple  from  tin 
road. 


29 

Forts 

There  was  enmity  "between  the  Dutch  and  the  Portuguese 
and  for  this,  and  probably  other  reasons,  Macao,  being  an 
open,  unprotected  place,  it  was  resolved  to  wall  and  fortify 
it.  In  1607  it  seems  to  have  had  no  such  defences:  the 
Monte  Fort  was  built  in  A.  D.  1675.  The  Monte  Fort,  or 
Fortaleza  do  Monte  de  St.  Paulo,  is  a  conspicuous  object, 
viewed  from  almost  every  part  of  Macao.  It  is  a  large  square- 
fort  covering  the  whole  of  the  top  of  a  large  hill,  which  rise^ 
with  gradual  slopes  and  occupies,  roughly  speaking,  the 
centre  of  the  peninsula.  It  is  a  spot  of  considerable  his- 
torical interest,  coming  often  into  notice  in  the  earlier  re- 
cords of  the  settlement.  It  was  from  this  fort  that  the  shot 
was  fired  which  killed  the  leader  of  the  Dutch  when  they 
landed  at  Ca^ilha's  Bay  and  were  marching  along  the 
Campo  to  take  the  City.  The  place  where  the  Dutch  ad- 
miral fell  is  now  marked  by  a  monument.  There  are  a  num- 
ber of  buildings  inside  the  walls  of  this  old  fort,  some  of 
which  serve  as  a  prison.  A  polite  request  will  secure 
permission  from  the  officer  in  charge  to  enter.  A  climb  up 
to  this  fort  (though  the  lanes  and  alleys  one  passes  are 
narrow  and  the  houses  of  the  humbler  class),  will  repay  one 
by  the  extensive  view  which  one  obtains  of  this  picturesque 
Portuguese  Colony.  The  City  lies  belowr  one's  feet,  to  the 
loft  the  Barracks,  Fort  of  San  Fransco,  the  Military  Hospital. 
the  old  tiny  fort  of  San  Joao,  recently  rebuilt,  and  the  an- 
<-ient  grey  wall  of  the  City  which  leads  from  this  Monti- 
Port  down  the  hill  and  rises  up  on  the  other  side  to  the  old 
fort  and  then  goes  down  the  hill  again  towards  the  Pray  a. 
There  is  the  cupola  of  San  Jose,  and  beyond  it  the  Penh  a 
Hills.  The  islands  in  the  Inner  Harbour  from  this  point 
look  different.  One  sees  the  Campo,  the  Guia,  Monga. 
Donna  Maria  Segonda  Forts,  the  Church  and  Cemetery  of 
San  Michael,  the  Barrier,  Green  Island,  The  Chinese  Ter- 
ritory, Camoens'  Gardens,  the  Cathedral,  the  Chinese  town 
and  gardens  are  all  visible;  but  it  is  well  nigh  impossible 
to  enumerate  all  the  objects  to  be  seen  from  this  vantage 


30 

ground;  for  a  walk  round  the  ramparts  of  this  fort  presents 
a  varying  panorama  and  most  of  the  objects  of  interest 
eome  in  view,  one  after  the  other,  as  th<>  Spectator's  stand- 
point changes. 

THE  MONGA  FOIIT 

The  Monga  is  a  small  square  fort,  placed  on  the  higher 
one  of  two  rocky  hills  overlooking  the  peninsula.    A  broad. 
but  almost  disused  road,  leads  up  to  it  from  the  gate  of  The 
New  Protestant  Cemetery.  It  is  wrell  worth  an  ascent,  as  the 
view  is  very  fine  and  a  fresh  breeze  is  often  blowing.     Ar- 
rived at  the  fort,  to  the  north  lies  the  large  gate  of  the 
Barrier,  with  the  road  running  along  the  middle  of  the  is- 
thmus to  it  and  through  it  to  Chinese  territory.     Beyond 
lie  some  lower  hills,  while  a  ridge  of  higher  heights  shuts  out 
further  view  of  what  used  to  be  an  unapproachable  land. 
This  ridge  is  called  by  the  Chinese,  Pak  Shan  Leng,  The 
Northen  Hills.     Turning  towards  the  south,  the  whole  pe- 
ninsula lies  spread  out  below  one's  feet.     To  our  right  are 
the  muddy  waters  of  the  Inner  Harbour  with  its  compara- 
tively narrow7  neck  opening  out  into  a  wide  bay-like  ex- 
panse, Green  Island  in  its  centre,  and  the   river   coming 
down  into  it  in  the  distance.     At  our  feet  a  large  level  plain 
spreads   itself  out, — well-cultivated    vegetable-gardens,  in- 
tersected by  one  or  twro  roads,  Chinese  hovels,  and  hamlets 
lie  in  different  places  on  its  edges.     The  green  little  knowl 
and  umbrageous  trees,  amidst  which  is  nestled  Camoens1 
(irotto,  forms  a  pleasant  background  to  the  mass  of  Chinese 
roofs,  while  it  itself  is  nearly  surrounded  by  hills,  thus  giv- 
ing a  pleasing  variety  to  the  view.     The  Monte  Fort  shuts 
out  a  sight  of  the  Praya,  but  in  the  distance  to  the  right  is 
seen  the  Penha  Hills  and  the  old  grey  City  wall  rises  first 
to  the  Monte  then  down  and  up  again  to  the  little  old  fort 
and  again  down,  this  fort  of  San  Paolo  and  part  of  the  City 
are  also  seen,     A  peep  of  the  Outer  Harbour  shows  between 
the  Monte  Fort  and  the  hill,  on  the  brow  of  which  stands 
the  Military  Hospital,  portion  of  which  is  in  the  line  of  view 
and  so  are  also  the  Gap  and  the  height  above  it,  on  which 
the   lighthouse  and  the   Guia  Fort  rear  themselves.    This 


31 

range  of  hills  continues  till  it  sinks  into  Cagilha's  Bay,  ris- 
ing again  with  a  hill  to  support  the  Fort  of  Donna  Maria  II, 
while  the  ornamented  Bella  Vista  is  closer  at  hand,  and  still 
further  beyond  the  hills  fall  into  lower  heights  and  run  out 
in  a  long  tongue  which  terminates  in  masses  of  rock,  washed 
and  beaten  and  hollowed  out  by  the  dashing  waves  of  cen- 
turies of  the  restless  ocean.  This  rocky  portion  is  called 
Macao  Rock  and  there  is  a  temple  here.  Beyond  lies  the  sea 
with  islands  and  islets,  fretted  with  silver  foam  when  the 
wind  roars  and  raves  in  its  mad  glee.  Towards  the  East 
are  the  Nine  Islands  and  the  lofty,  abrupt  top  of  Laiitao 
which  now  is  British,  rises  to  the  height  of  3050  feet. 

BAR  FORT 

The  Bar  Fort,  or  Fortaleza  de  Santiago  is  at  the  entrance 
to  the  Inner  Harbour,  It  is  built  on  the  lower  slope  of  the 
hill  at  the  water's  edge.  The  soldiers  have  tastefully  laid 
out  several  flower  beds  in  it.  There  is  also  a  chapel  ded- 
icated to  the  patron  saint,  who  appears  life-sized  and  armed 
with  sword  and  shield  and  in  warlike  dress. 
FORTE  DE  D.  MARIA 

From  this  fortress  which  overlooks  Camilla's  Bay,  the 
view  is  also  very  fine;  but  considerably  different  in  its 
character  from  that  seen  from  Monga  Fort;  though  many 
of  the  same  objects  appear,  yet  viewed  from  a  different 
standpoint,  the  panorama  spread  out  before  one's  eyes  from 
the  different  heights  in  Macao  present  considerable  differ- 
ences. The  outlook  from  this  height  is  more  of  the  country 
and  the  sea,  as  some  of  the  hills  now  hide  the  greater  por- 
tion of  the  dwellings.  The  fort  itself  is  a  curious  little 
place,  a  drawbridge  carries  one  over  the  dry  moat  at  the 
^•ate  which  is  arrived  at,  after  ascending  a  zig-zig  path.  A 
well  of  delicious  cold  water  is  within  the  walls  of  the  fort. 
From  this  spot  are  seen  Camoens'  Gardens,  the  Monte  Fort, 
the  Inner  Harbour  and  the  large  hills  on  the  opposite  side 
with  Cacilha's  Bay  lying  below. 

THE  GUI  A  FONT 
The  (luia  Fort  i*  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  objects  in  a 


landscape  whore  nearly  very  thing  seeins  conspicuous.  l\ 
crowns  the  Guia  Hill  and  is  approached  by  a  zig-zag  path 
from  the  Gap.  Within  its  enclosures  is  an  old  chapel,  con- 
taining old  graves  and  opened  once  a  year  when  a  proces- 
sion ascends  to  it.  The  lighthouse  is  also  within  the  walls 
of  this  fort,  The  light  is  a  revolving  one  going  by  clock- 
work, the  works  being  wound  up  by  two  convicts,  who  have 
a  cell  for  their  incarceraton  within  the  fort.  The  Guin 
Fort  was  built  in  A.  D.  1637  and  the  lighthouse  in  1865. 

FORTS  OF  SAN  FRANCISCO,  BOM  PAHTO  AND  ST.  PETER 

The  Praya  Grand  is  bounded  by  two  forts  and  had  a  little 
fort,  that  of  St.  Peter,  in  the  middle.  The  two  other  forts 
are  one  at  each  end  of  the  Praya.  San  Francisco,  of  grey 
stone,  being  just  below  the  Barracks  (several  yellow  build- 
ings, through  which  entrance  into  it  is  effected)  of  that 
name  and  nearest  the  Guia  Fort.  In  1622  there  was  but 
one  battery,  'the  lower  battery  dates  from  1632'. 

The  Bomparto  Fort,  Bartuarte  de  nossa  Senhora  de  Bom- 
parto,  is  at  the  far  end  of  the  Praya.  It  is,  we  believe,  not 
used  as  a  fort  now,  but  serves  as  a  residence  for  one  of  the 
military  officers. 

A  city  wall,  already  mentioned,  ascends  to  the  chapel  on 
the  top  of  the  hill  above  it.  An  extension  of  the  Praya 
Grande  and  the  Praya  Menduca  (the  Praya  at  the  Inner 
Harbour)  is  contemplated  from  below  this  fort,  round  to 
the  Bar  Fort,  The  Bomparto  Fort  had  three  batteries. 
This  fort  is  connected  with  the  fort  at  Taipa  Point,  on  one 
of  the  islands  lying  off  the  Outer  Harbour,  by  a  telegraph 
line,  which  lands  at  Bishop's  Bay,  a  small  sandy  bay  n 
little  beyond  the  end  of  the  Praya,  below  the  Penha  Hills.. 
The  end  of  the  cable  may  be  seen  at  low  water  and  a  soldier 
is  here  to  guard  it.  The  telegraph  offices  for  this  Govern- 
ment telegraph  are  at  the  fort,  and  signals  can  be  exchanged 
with  other  places.  There  is  a  lay  figure  dressed  in  armour 
in  this  fort  and,  in  one  of  these  forts,  there  is  an  old  bell 
bearing  an  inscription  in  Portuguese  and  the  date  1707. 

It  will  be  found  on  visiting  the  forts  in  Macao  that  everv 


33 

tiling  is  most  beautifully  clean  and  neat  and  the  soldiers 
ji  nd  officers  most  polite  and  civil.  Above  Bishop's  Bay 
were  a  number  of  dirty  squatters'  houses.  These  are  being, 
or  have  been,  cleared  out  for  sanitary  reasons. 

Military  Hospital 

From  forts  it  is  an  easy  transition  to  the  Military  Hospital 
of  San  Janario,  which,  erected  in  1873,  is  built  on  a  most 
commanding  and  healthy  site  fronting  the  sea.  It  is  on 
the  slope  of  the  hill,  just  below  the  old  fort  of  San  Joao  and 
just  above  the  San  Francisco  Barracks,  being  one  of  the 
first  objects  that  the  visitor  to  Macao  sees  from  the  deck  of 
the  steamer.  It  is  named  after  the  Viscount  S.  Januario,  a 
former  Governor  of  the  Colony,  during  whose  term  of  office 
it  was  built,  the  former  military  hospital  being  in  the  old 
Convent  of  San  Augustino.  The  site  was  that  of  an  old 
gunpowder  manufactory.  The  model  for  the  construction 
of  the  building  was  the  Hospital  of  San  Raphael  in  Belgium. 
It  cost  $38,  500,  and  covers  75  metres  by  34.  The  building 
consists  of  a  main  body  facing  the  sea  with  several  wings 
running  back  from  it.  In  the  front  are  the  Entrance  Hall, 
the  porter's  Lodge,  the  Quarters  for  the  Chief  Hospital  At- 
tendant and  his  Assistant,  and  the  stairs  to  the  Secretary's 
Office  in  the  upper  story.  In  the  Northeast  part  there  are 
apartments  for  the  Physician,  the  Chaplain,  a  room  contain- 
ing surgical  instruments,  the  Dispensary,  and  the  ChapeL 
while  in  the  South-west  portion  of  the  building  there  are 
Quarters  for  the  Officers,  Bath-rooms,  and  the  Linen  Stores. 
The  upper  storey  contains  the  Committee  Room,  Secretary's 
Office,  and  the  Director's  Office.  The  wings  contain  Surgical 
and  other  wards  for  Sergeants  and  Reserved  Ward,  Ac- 
countant's Quarters,  and  a  Hall  for  Surgical  Operations, 
Cells,  and  Quarters  for  Military  Servants. 

The  Mortuary,  Room  for  Post  Mortem  Examinations  and 
Room  for  the  Collection  of  Soiled  Linen  are  in  a  separate 
building  some  four  or  five  metres  distant  from  the  main 
building  and  still  further  distant  in  the  same  direction  is 
the  Guard  House.  There  is  a  garden  to  the  South-west  for 


34 

the  use  of  convalescents  and  there  is  also  a  tower  for  an 
Observatory. 

ST.  RAFIO,  OR  CIVIL  HOSPITAL 

This  hospital,  one  of  the  ancient  institutions,  was  erected 
by  the  Brotherhood  of  Mercy.  Admission  was  by  petition 
to  the  Provedor  and  both  heathen  and  Christians  were  ad- 
mitted, a  wall  dividing  the  male  and  female  quarters. 

THE  LEPER  ASYLUM 

This  is  another  of  the  ancient  charitable  institutions  of 
Macao. 

SANTA  CASA  DE  MISERICORDIA 

As  the  font  and  origin  of  the  charitable  institutions  of 
Macao,  it  will  be  interesting  to  quote  an  account  of  this 
parent  association  from  an  old  writer  on  Macao: — 

"Donna  Leonara,  consort  of  King  John  II,  founded  in  Lis- 
bon (1489)  a  Brotherhood  of  Mercy,  known  by  the  appel- 
lation of  'comfraris  be  nossa  Senhora  ba  Misericordia,' — 
The  foundation  of  the  Santa  Casa  de  Misericordia, — The 
Holy  House  of  Mercy  at  Macao  was  laid  in  1596  and  its  first 
Provisor, — "Provedor" — was  Melchior  Carneiro,  Governor  of 
the  Bishoprick  of  Macao.  To  assist  fellowmen,  whose  means 
of  subsistence  are  too  small  and  inadequate  for  the  main- 
tenance of  a  numerous  family,  to  relieve  bed-ridden,  respect- 
able people,  and  those  who  reluctantly  go  abroad  asking 
for  alms,  and  to  bring  up  orphans  and  foundlings;  these  are 
the  sacred  duties  which  this  worthy  society  profess  to  im- 
pose upon  themselves.  In  any  country  wrhere  Portugal  ever 
settled  their  thoughts  were  bent,  it  seems,  upon  forming- 
benevolent  institutions,  like  that  we  are  alluding  to.  Re- 
formed rules  for  its  management  were  drawn  up,  (1617)  and 
confirmed  (1649)  by  John  IV,  who  took  the  Santa  Cantn 
Casa  de  Misericordia  under  his  immediate  protection.  In 
compliance  with  the  "compromise"  of  1627,  the  collective 
numbers  nominate  electors  to  choose  a  Provisor,  Secretary 
and  Treasurer,  with  the  Deputies  to  form  a  Board  of  thirteen. 
The  individuals  thus  selected  are  at  liberty  to  decline  the 
trust  or  to  accept  their  respective  charges  for  the  period  of 


35 

one  year,  ending  on  the  3rd  of  July.  The  Provisor  may  with 
the  concurrence  of  a  majority  of  the  Board,  take  certain 
resolutions;  but  in  fixed  cases,  such  as  in  the  election  of  new 
members,  a  general  meeting  is  required.  The  Board  meets 
twice  a  week,  in  a  spacious  hall  not  far  from  the  fine  church, 
dedicated  to  our  Lady  of  Mercy, — nossa  Senhora  da  Miser- 
icordia.  The  members  of  this  brotherhood  do  not  contribute, 
duty  bound,  to  the  formation  of  a  productive  fund;  they 
engage  merely  to  act  as  trustees.  On  certain  bulky  articles 
of  trade  one  per  cent,  being  added  to  the  regular  custom- 
house duty,  [  There  is  no  custom-house  in  Macao  now,  as 
there  was  in  the  days  when  this  was  written  as  Macao  is 
now  a  free  port,]  half  of  its  total  amount  is,  at  the  end  of 
the  year  received  by  the  Treasurer,  the  other  half  goes,  as 
alread  mentioned,  to  the  Monastery  of  St.  Clare.  In  1833 
the  receipts  were  3806  taels;  besides  this  stock,  which 
is,  of  course,  subject  to  much  fluctuation,  the  members  of 
the  Board  manage  all  those  sums  which  living  or  deceased 
persons  may  choose  to  throw  into  the  coffers  for  purposes 
fully  explained  in  writing."  This  Holy  House  of  Mercy 
was  abolished  about  thirty-five  years  ago;  but  was  revived 
again  in  1832  when,  as  stated  below,  a  lottery  was  first  star- 
ted. 'The  old  rules  were  revived  and  the  sanction  of  the 
authorities  obtained'.  Of  late  years  a  lottery  has  been 
resorted  to  as  a  means  of  obtaining  money.  It  was  farmed 
to  a  wealthy  merchant,  representing  a  Chinese  syndicate 
The  proceeds  were  thus  allotted: — 54  per  cent,  in  prizes  of 
different  amounts  and  25  per  cent.,  less  8  per  cent,  paid  to  the 
Santa  Casa,  went  to  the  merchant.  So  that  the  main  subsidy 
now  is  the  monthly  one  derived  from  the  lottery.  The  funds 
of  the  Santa  Casa  are  invested  in  shaTes  of  Hongkong  public 
Companies.  The  institution  is  in  a  flourishing  state,  great 
care,  it  is  said,  being  exercised  in  the  management  of  the 
Society's  money  matters;  and  the  institutions,  such  as  the 
San  Raphael  Hospital,  mentioned  above,  the  Asylums,  and 
others  are  also  carefully  managed. 

THE  CHINESE  HOSPITAL 
Copying  the  Christian  practices  of  Western  nations  in 


36 

instituting  hospitals  for  the  sick,  the  wealthy  Chinese,  in 
Hongkong,  Canton,  and  Macao,  as  well  as  at  some  other 
ports  and  cities,  have  within  the  last  score  or  two  of  years 
established  charitable  societies,  having  often  a  hospital  in 
connection  with  them.  The  one  in  Hongkong  has  had  tin- 
benefit  of  being  under  Government  supervision  (having 
first  been  forced  into  existence  by  the  Government)  and  for 
some  time  past  having  doctors  trained  in  Western  science 
connected  with  it.  The  same  holds  good  with  the  Macao 
Chinese  Hospital,  which  is  subjected  to  thorough  Govern- 
ment inspection  by  the  Portuguese  authorities,  who  insist 
on  the  place  being  kept  in  a  clean  and  wholesome  condition. 
"A  full  account  of  all  that  transpires"  is  given  to  the 
Portuguese  Government  physician,  who  has  a  frequent  in- 
spection of  the  hospital.  The  entrance  to  this  hospital  is 
not  very  prepossessing,  as  a  stone  wall  fronts  one.  A  clean 
Chinese  attendant  meets  one  and  points  the  way  to  the  in- 
ner departments,  first  of  which  to  be  seen  is  that  devoted  to 
the  idols.  Instead  of  being  venerable  in  dirt  and  cobwebs, 
this  temple  apartment  is  clean,  "the  floors  are  scrupulously 
white  and  not  a  bit  of  dirt  is  visible."  A  cup  of  tea  is  pre- 
sented to  the  visitor,  who  then  interviews  the  attendants, 
amongst  whom  is  seen  a  well-dressed  doctor.  The  drug- 
store is  well-stocked  with  many  of  the  herbal  simples  of  the 
Chinese  pharmacopcea,  noi  amongst  the  materia  medica  art- 
wanting  several  well-known  Western  medicines;  behind  the 
drug-store  are  seen  a  number  of  "benches  arranged  facing  a 
sunny  out-look"  on  which  the  convalescents  are  seated.  "A 
stately  flight  of  stone  steps"  and  'a  promanade  through  a 
carefully  kept  garden"  lead  to  the  various  wards.  "From 
the  open  doors  and  ventilated  roofs  the  patients  can  see 
beautiful  flowers  and  foliage  and  rest  their  weary  eyes  upon 
one  of  the  loveliest  bits  of  landscape  gardening  in  Macao". 
Ventilation  is  ensured  in  each  small  apartment,  both  at  the 
side  and  at  the  top.  Small  comfortable  beds  are  provided 
for  the  patients  and  warm  coverlets,  which  latter  attract  at- 
tention from  their  cleanliness.  "A  tiny  tea-set,  a  bowl, 
chop-sticks,  and  the  other  little  table  ornaments  which  the 


37 

Chinese  seem  to  think  necessary"  are  provided  for  each 
patient.  Everything  in  this  hospital  is  described  as  beinu 
clean,  or  clean  and  tidy,  and  this  extends  even  to  the  kitch- 
en itself,  which  in  an  average  Chinese  house  is  the 
dirtiest  part  of  the  dwelling.  Disinfectants  are  freely 
used — the  floors  being  washed  twice  a  day,  furniture,  "and 
the  beds  are  dusted  with  a  wet  cloth"  once  in  that  period, 
the  bed-linen  and  towelling  are  changed  daily,  the  patients 
also  mirabile  dictu  having  a  bath  once  a  day  and  a  change 
of  underclothing.  The  attendance  given  to  the  charity 
patients  by  the  Chinese  of  the  hospital  is  described  as  most 
tender  and  kind.  "In  some  of  the  spaces  were  mildly  in- 
sane patients,  and  it  was  noticeable  that  the  attendants 
treated  them  with  the  utmost  gentleness". 

A  Leper  Hospital  is  kept  up  on  the  Island  of  Caho  by  tho 
Government. 

St.  Clare,  or  Santa  Clara 

Mosteiro  de  Sa,  Clara — This  old  convent  is  just  behind 
the  Public  Gardens  where  an  ancient  gateway  gives  access 
to  a  long  flight  of  stone  steps  leading  up  to  the  door  of  this 
former  nunery.  "A  nun  of  Toledo  by  the  name  of  Jeronyma 
de  Ascencao  chose  China  for  her  field  of  labour.  She  arrived 
at  Manila  (1621 )  with  some  nuns.  Liberty  was  at  last  gran- 
ted to  her  to  go  to  Macao  and  there  lay  the  foundation  of 
a  convent  in  honour  of  St.  Clare.  Jeronyma  died  and  six 
nuns  came  to  Macao  with  the  Abbess  Leonora  de  St.  Francis 
in  November  1633.  Erected  by  voluntary  contributions  and 
alms  of  the  faithful,  the  nuns  took  possession  on  the  30th. 
of  April  1634.  Convent  was  consumed  by  conflagration  in 
1825,  but  is  now  1634  rebuilt."  There  were  forty  nuns  in 
this  convent;  but  it  is  now  turned  into  a  school.  It  is  curious 
to  go  through  the  building  with  its  large  spacious  rooms. 
When  we  visited  it  the  Lady  Superioress  had  not  been 
outside  its  walls  for  twenty  years.  There  is  a  chapel  in  con- 
nection with  this  convent. 

Schools 

There  are  a  number  of  other  educational  institutions  in 


38 

Macao  besides  those  mentioned  above.  We  have  already  spo- 
ken of  St.  Joseph's  College  or  the  Seminario  de  S.  Jose,  which 
has  a  long  list  of  Professors,  headed  by  a  Rector  and  Director 
Esperitual,  comprising  in  their  number  Instructors  in  The- 
ology, Philosophy,  Rhetoric,  Natural  History,  Physics,  La- 
tin, Geography  and  History,  French,  English,  Portuguese, 
Chinese,  and  Music. 

THE  CENTRAL  SCHOOL  AND  OTHERS 

The  Escola  Central  is  for  Primary  Instruction  and  has  a 
number  of  masters.  It  is  divided  into  three,  a  Higher,  Mid- 
dle, and  Lower  School.  Instruction  is  aso  given  in  Music, 
Gymnastics,  Dancing,  and  Chinese  in  both  Pekingese  and 
Cantonese. 

Near  the  end  of  the  old  City  wall  is  a  small  building,  the 
Escola  Publica  de  Lingua  Portugeza  para  China,  for  the 
instruction  as  the  name  shows,  of  Chinese  in  the  Portuguese 
Language.  It  is  presided  over  by  one  Professor  or  Master. 

There  is  an  association  for  the  promotion  of  the  instruction 
of  Macaoese,  consisting  of  a  President,  Secretary,  Treasurer, 
and  four  members. 

There  is  a  Public  School  for  Girls  in  the  parish  of  Saint 
Lourenco,  and  one  in  the  Cathedral  parish.  There  are  also 
one  or  two  Public  Schools  for  Boys. 

Besides  the  above  there  is,  or  was,  an  Escola  Commercial 
with  an  Englishman  and  Chinese  as  Professors.  Amongst 
the  schools  may  be  mentioned  the  Italiae  School,  Asylo  das 
Filhas  de  Caridade  Canosimas,  having  eight  sisters  as  teach- 
ers with  a  Regenta  as  Head. 

THE  COLLEGE  OF  SANTA  ROZA 

This  institution  has  its  origin  as  an  asylum  for  female  or- 
phans well-nigh  two  centuries  ago.  It  is  thus  written  of: — 

"An  institution  of  this  kind  was  an  early  thought  of  the 
Brotherhood  of  Mercy;  but  no  efficient  means  could  be  de- 
vised for  its  duration.  A  temporary  foundation  for  thirty 
widows  and  orphans  began  in  1726;  they  were  fed,  and  the 
orphans  taught  to  manage  a  house.  One  of  the  most  deserv- 
ing of  the  inmates  was  annually  endowed  with  the  amount 


39 

of  one-half  per  cent,  on  the  whole  importation  of  trade, 
which  the  Senate  had  set  apart  for  a  nuptial  portion;  this 
half  per  cent,  rose  in  1726  to  406  taels;  in  1728,  to  hardly 
CO  taels.  From  this  epoch  the  institution  remained  suspend- 
ed till  in  the  year  1782  the  Brotherhood  made  a  proposition 
to  establish  a  new  one  in  conjunction  with  the  Senate:  the 
proposal  was  accepted.  The  Senate  gave  four  thousand  taels 
and  the  name  of  Asylum  of  Sta,  Rosa  de  Lima, — Rccolhi- 
mento  de  Santa  Rosa  de  Lima.  This  stock  increased  by  lib- 
eral gifts  and  legacies  is  lent  at  respondentia.  The  net 
proceeds  of  the  premium,  determines  the  number  of  girls 
who  can  be  admitted.  No  one  is  received  but  with  the  con- 
sent of  the  Bishop,  who  appoints  a  priest  (for  there  is  a 
chapel  in  the  house),  an  Inspector,  and  a  woman  of  good 
repute,  Regent  of  the  Community.  A  school  mistress  teach- 
es Religion,  Reading,  Writing,  and  Needlework.  Female 
children,  whose  fathers  can  afford  to  pay  a  certain  allowance 
for  food,  lodging,  &c.,  are  not  refused  admittance  when  pla- 
ces are  vacant,  and  the  Bishop  does  not  start  any  objections. 
Orphans  there  educated,  may  with  his  consent,  accept  the 
situation  of  a  teacher  in  any  family,  and  the  proposal  of  a 
matrimonial  union  (should  a  suitable  match  happen  to  be 
offered).  In  this  event  a  portion  is  bestowed,  but  the  a- 
mount  depends  on  the  resources  and  the  good  will  of  the 
Bishop." 

The  College  of  Santa  Coza  da  Lima  for  Girls  is  now  pre- 
sided over  by  a  Committee,  consisting  of  the  Bishop  as  Pres- 
ident, a  Vice-president,  a  Treasurer,  and  Secretary,  and  a 
couple  of  members.  There  are  a  number  of  Professors, 
English,  French,  Music,  and  Dancing  being  all  included  in 
the  curiculum. 

ARTISAN  TRAINING  SCHOOL 

A  school  described  as  such  was  started  in  Macao  "for  the 
benefit  of  Macaoese  orphans  and  sons  of  poor  persons  who 
are  unable  to  provide  for  the  higher  education  of  their 
children.  An  annuity  was  necessary  for  the  maintainance 
of  the  establishment  in  its  different  branches,  but  this  is 


40 

fully  provided  for  by  subsidy  from  the  Government  and  the 
various  charitable  institutions  of  Macao". 

As  to  the  maintinance  of  some  of  these  schools  the  Leal 
Senado  supports  two  free  schools,  a  boys'  and  a  girls' — The 
Escola  Central  do  Sexo  Masculine  and  The  Escola  Central 
do  Sexo  Feminino. 

Besides  these  there  are  the  Lyceum,  maintained  by 
Government,  the  Senate  contributing  $4000  annually. 

Clubs 

The  Club  Unioao  is  presided  over  by  a  Committee,  con- 
siting  of  a  President,  Secretary,  Treasurer,  and  two  mem- 
bers. The  habitat  of  the  Club  is  or  was,  the  pretty  theatre 
of  Dom  Pedro  II.  The  spacious  room  in  the  centre  which 
serves  as  a  theatre  can  be  used  as  a  ball-room,  while  the 
smaller  rooms  in  front  serve  as  a  reading-room,  &c.  A  num- 
ber of  papers  are  to  be  found  on  the  tables  and  a  consider- 
able number  of  books  in  the  book-shelves. 

The  Gremio  Militar  is  a  military  club  on  the  Praya  just 
beyond  the  Public  Gardens.  It  is  a  tasteful,  pretty,  little 
building  containing  Reading  Room,  Card-rooms,  &c,  &c., 
The  Committee  is  composed  of  a  President,  a  Vice-President. 
a  Treasurer,  a  Secretary,  and  a  Vice-Secretary.  It  appears 
to  have  been  somewhat  enlarged  of  late  years. 

TENNIS  CLUB 

The  Tennis-Club  is  just  behind  the  New  Protestant  Ceme- 
tery. It  has  two  chunam  Courts.  Visitors  are  allowed  to 
join  on  application  to  the  Secretary  and  payment  of  a 
small  monthly  subscription. 

Monuments 

In  what  was  the  Campo  behind  the  range  of  hills  on 
one  point  of  which  is  the  lighthouse,  but  which  part  of  the 
Campo  is  now  taken  into  the  boulevard-like  garden,  or 
garden-like-boulevard,  is  a  monument  erected  to  the  memo- 
ry of  the  victory  over  the  Dutch  when  Macao  was  attacked 
by  the  latter  "during  the  long-continued  war  in  the  East 
between  Portugal  and  Holland,  the  latter  capturing  many 


41 

of  the  Portuguese  Colonies,  such  as  Malacca,  Point  de  Galle, 
&c.  On  June  22nd  1622,  Admiral  Ryersyoon  with  eighteen 
vessels  appeared  off  Macao  from  Batavia.  He  landed  a  con- 
siderable force  at  Cagilha's  Bay  and  advanced  upon  the 
City,  but  after  an  unavailing  attempt  to  capture  it,  was 
obliged  to  retrace  to  his  ships,  leaving  the  Commander  of 
the  land  force  behind  him.  This  officer  was  killed  by  a 
round  shot  from  the  Monte  Fort."  It  was  a  disasterous 
defeat  for  the  Dutch,  the  Portuguese  fighting  bravely. 

The  monument  is  a  short,  thick,  octagonal,  stone  column, 
mounted  on  a  stone  base,  surmounted  by  the  Portuguese 
coat  of  arms,  carved  in  stone  also.  The  whole  is  surrounded 
by  an  iron  railing  with  granite  pillars.  There  are  inscrip- 
tions on  both  front  and  back  of  the  column  in  a  scroll.  In 
front  is  the  following: — 

Para  perpetua  na  Memoria  dos  Vindouros 

A  Victoria  que  os  Portuguezes  de  Macau 

For  Intercessao  do  Bemaventurados.  Joao  Baptist 

A  quern  Tomaram  por  padroeiro 

Alcancaram 

Sobre  Oitocentos  Hollandezes  Armados 
Que  de  Trese  Naos  de  Guerra  Capitaneados 

Pelo  Almirante  Roggers 
Desembarcaram  na  Praia  de  Cacilha 

Para  Tomarem  esta  Cidade 
Do  Santo  Nome  de  Deus  de  Macau 

Em  24  de  Junho  de  1622. 
That  on  the  back  is  as  follows: — 

No  Mesmo  Logar  Oude 
Uma  Pequena  Cruz  de  Pedra 

Commemorava 
A  Accao  Gloriosa  dos  Portuguezes 

Mandou 

0  Leal  Senado 

Levantar  este  Monumento 

No  anno  de  1864. 
On  the  base  in  front  is  the  date 
26 


42 

de  Marco 

1871. 

(The  bust  of  Camoens  has  already  been  noticed  in  an 
account  of  the  Gardens  where  his  cave  or  grotto  is  to  be 
found.)  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  from  that  on 
which  the  monument  to  the  great  Portuguese  Victory  is 
situated,  but  further  away  from  the  City,  is  a  piece  of 
ground  laid  out  as  a  garden  and  having  in  its  centre  a  statue 
to  the  late  Count  de  Senna  Fernandes,  which  was  erected 
by  some  of  the  Chinese  in  the  Colony.  The  statue  of  the 
Count  is  in  official  dress,  and  on  the  pedestal  there  are  in- 
scriptions in  Portuguese  and  Chinese.  The  former  is  as 
follows: — 

Para  Perpetua  a  Memoria  do  Beneniseito 

Cidadao 
Bernandino  de  Senna  Fernandez 

Major  Honorario 
Commendador  da  Ordem  Militer  de 

Nosso  Senhor  Jesus  Christo 
Commendador  da  Ordem  de  Elephante  Branco 

de  Siam 

Cacalleiro  de  Antica  e  Minto  pobre  Ordem 

Da  Torre  e  Espada,  do  Valor  Lealdade  e  Merito 

Fidaho  Cavalleiro  da  Casa  Real 

Consul  de  Siam  e  da  Italia 
I  Barao  Viscounte  e  Conde  de  Senna  Fernandez 

A  graciado  Comamedalha  de  Frata 

de  Merito  Philanthropia  e  Generosidade 

Chevalier  Sauveteurs  des  Alpes  Maritime** 

Socio  Protettore  de  Associazioni  dei 

Benemeriti  Italini 
Muito  Apreciado  pela  Communidade  Chineza 

de  Macau 
Pelo  seu  animo  justiceiro  e  provada 

Estima  e  sympathia 

Aos  negociantes  Chinezes 

A  quern  sempre  Dispensava  Proteccao 

e  Apoio 


43 


Esta  Estatua  foi  Mandaro  Erigir  por 

Lu-Cheo-Chi,  Cham  Hau-in,  Ho-Liu-Vong, 

e  outros  negociantes  Chinezes  de  Macau 

Em  Testemunho  de  Amizade  e  Gratidao. 

Fountains 

There  are  several  fountains,  or  hydrants,  where  the 
water  is  supplied  for  public  use.  One  or  two  of  these  are 
rather  pretty  spots.  Especially  is  (or  perhaps  was,  as  we 
believe  some  alterations  are  in  progress  here)  this  the  case 
with  the  Fonte  de  Solidao.  The  "fonte"  itself  calls  for  no 
especial  notice,  the  water  being  simply  conducted  into  a 
trough;  but  a  little  to  the  left  a  flight  of  stone  steps  leads 
up  from  the  road  and  by  going  up  and  trending  a  little  to 
the  right,  one  comes  in  a  few  steps  to  a  pretty  double  grot- 
to —  a  lovely  little  spot,  hewn  out  of  the  solid  rock,  and 
green  with  numbers  of  beautiful  ferns,  with  water  dripping 
from  the  rock  and  trickling  down  over  the  greenery.  This 
"fonte"  is  on  the  land-side  of  the  sea-side  road  leading  from 
the  Gap  to  Cagilha's  Bay. 

Another  of  these  places  is  behind  the  Padre's  Gardens  as 
they  used  to  be  called,  but  which  now  form  the  Governor's 
Summer  Residence  in  the  Campo.  It  is  called  the  Fonte 
da  Inveja,  1882.  The  water  comes  out  of  a  fish's  mouth, 
while  a  gilt  dog's  head  is  above.  A  short  path  leads  up  be- 
yond it,  shaded  on  both  sides  by  bamboos,  to  the  source  of 
the  water;  and  one  finds  a  gateway  with  wooden  doors. 
Peeping  in,  one  sees  a  small  stone  arch  with  the  rock  below 
it  and  a  few  ferns. 

A  little  to  the  left  of  this  and  immediately  behind  the 
gardens  spoken  of  above  is  another  called  Fonte  da  Flora 
1882.  A  Chinese-like  building  of  square  form,  surmounted 
by  a  vase  and  flowers  is  here.  A  dragon  empties  the  water 
into  a  stone  tank  in  front.  Above  this  is  a  square  tank 
with  a  flat  top.  The  water  is  strained  in  this  before  it  goes 
down  to  the  little  building  below.  The  road  to  these  two 
fountains  as  they  are  called,  leads  up  from  the  direct  road 


44 

to  Cagilha's  Bay.  After  passing  the  Barracks  and  a  ruined 
old  guard-house,  the  road  leading  up  between  the  last  and 
the  gardens  is  the  one  to  take.  After  going  up  a  little  way, 
the  Estrada,  da  Victoria  turns  off  to  the  right,  running  at 
at  the  back  of  the  Barracks  and  finally  running  at  right 
angles  to  the  road  that  leads  up  from  the  Campo  to  the 
Gap.  Instead  of,  however,  turning  into  the  Estrada  da 
Victoria,  keep  on  and  you  come  to  the  fountains.  There  arc 
a  number  of  stone  seats  and  tables  here,  two  of  the  latter 
being  old  Chinese  proclamations  engraved  in  stone,  these 
are  turned  face  up  and  placed  on  two  upright  stones  and 
thus  serve  for  tables. 

"Bica  de  Lilau  in  Penha,  at  one  time  supplying  water  of 
undoubted  excellence"  is  ceasing  to  be  of  much  public  utili- 
ty. "The  supply  from  the  Fonte  de  Felicidade  in  Flora 
perceptably  diminishes". 

Many  of  the  houses  in  Macao  have  wells  inside  their  pre- 
cincts or  in  the  gardens  attached  to  them. 

The  Flora 

The  Flora  is  the  summer  residence  of  the  Governor  of 
Macao.  It  has  a  large  garden  attached  to  it  and  is  at  the  end 
of  the  new  boulevard.  It  was  built  in  1850  by  the  Parish 
priest,  Padre  Almeida  and  hence  known  then  as  the  Padre's 
Garden.  It  is  also  sometimes  called  the  Almeida. 

Green  Island 

Green  Island  is  a  pretty  little  island,  at  the  top  of  the 
Inner  Harbour.  The  Jesuits  held  it  in  the  early  days  of 
the  Colony,  and  the  Bishop  had  a  residence  here  afterwards. 
If  we  forget  not,  some  sisters  of  mercy  had  here  a  school. 
Of  recent  years  a  causeway  has  been  built  connecting  it  with 
the  peninsula  near  the  Barrier.  Green  Island  (consists 
principally  of  a  little  hill  with  a  small  bit  of  level  ground 
on  both  sides.  It  is  now  used  for  the  Green  Island)  Cement 
Co.,  for  their  cement  works.  The  great  fall  in  exchange  has 
benefitted  this  company  largely,  who  thus,  under  the  con- 
ditions that  prevail  with  a  low  rate  of  exchange,  can  oust 


45 

their  rivals  in  Europe  and  hold  their  own  against  them: 
though  the  company  in  the  past  has  had  much  to  contend 
against.  Amongst  different  matters  which  have  handicap- 
ped it  in  the  past  has  been  the  sinking  of  large  amounts  in 
remidying  initial  mistakes  and  in  the  expenditure  of  large 
sums  of  money  in  new  machinery,  buildings,  &c. 

"The  raw  materials  for  cement  are  limestone  and  clay,  of 
which  enormons  quantities  are  within  easy  reach.  The 
first  is  procurable  in  the  provinces  of  Kwangtung  and 
Kwangsi;  and  the  latter  in  the  Inner  Harbour  itself,  just  in 
front  of  the  very  works  *  *  *  Most  of  the  output  goe^ 
to  Manila,  various  ports  of  China,  Hongkong,  Japan,  and 
other  distant  parts."  This  port-land  cement  produceed  in 
Macao  is  of  most  superior  quality,  and  is  largely  used  in 
this  part  of  the  world. 

Tamtsai  and  Colowan 

These  are  two  dependences  of  Macao  and  are  situated  on 
two  islands  to  the  southward,  and  within  sight  and  easy 
reach  of  Macao.  Two  steamlaunches  make  the  journey  back 
and  forward  twice  a  day,  starting  from  a  small  wooden  land- 
ing beyond  the  Hongkong  Canton  and  Macao  steamer 
wharves  in  the  Inner  Harbour.  When  we  took  the  journey 
some  time  ago  the  times  were  approximately  as  follows: — 

Leave  Macao:  Arrive  at  Tamtsai:        Arrive  at  Colowan 

7  A.  M.  in  about  in  about 

11  A*  M.  50  minutes.  One  hour 

1.  P  M.  and  a  quarter. 
3  P.  M. 

Leave  Colowan:  Leave  Tamtsai:  Arrive  at  Macao: 

7  or  7.  30  A.  M.      9.  30  A.  M.  or  so.  in  about 

9  A.  M.  One  between  the  50  minuter. 

1  P.  M.  above  time  and 

2.  30  P.  M.         the  next,  which  is  at 

1.  30  P.  M. 
2  P.  M,  or  so. 
Starting  say  at  7  A.  M.  the  boat  soon  leave?  the  Inner 


46 

Harbour  and  makes  out  for  the  open.  Rounding  the  end 
of  the  Peninsula  Malau  Chau,  Monkey  Island,  is  seen  off  to 
the  Westward  on  the  stern  quarter  of  the  launch.  On 
this  island  are  situated  the  Imperial  Maritime  Customs 
Station.  We  then  pass  some  rocks,  visible  at  low  water,  the 
Pedra  de  Areia  lying  off  the  Southern  end  of  the  Peninsula. 
After  steaming  for  about  forty  minutes  or  more  the  launch 
arrives  at  the  fort  on  the  point  at  Taipa.  Another  ten 
minutes  and  she  arrives  at  Tamtsai  when  a  lot  of  little  sam- 
pans come  round  her  to  take  passengers  off  on  shore.  The 
time  the  launch  waits  here  is  not  sufficient  to  go  ashore  and 
return  before  she  leaves  for  Colowan,  should  one  wish  to  go 
on  there,  as  the  boat  only  stops  for  a  quarter  of  an  hour  or 
so.  Starting  from  Tamtsai  we  make  for  another  island 
where  we  arrive  at  8.  20  A..  M.,  and  go  ashore  by  sampan. 
There  is  nothing  much  to  see,-two  police  stations  and  a 
number  of  Chinese  houses,  shops  and  hovels.  Saltfish  is 
one  of  the  staple  commodities.  There  is  a -temple  to  the 
Queen  of  Heaven,  the  sailor's  patron  saint,  and  an  offering, 
in  the  shape  of  a  model  of  a  junk,  as  at  the  Matsopo  temple 
in  Macao.  In  a  short  time  the  blast  of  the  whistle  warns  us 
it  is  time  to  hurry  back,  when  we  retrace  our  way  to  Macao. 
Typa  and  Kongpeng  are  two  islands  almost  connected,  the 
channel  between  them  being  too  slightly  submerged  at  high 
water  to  permit  a  steamlaunch  to  proceed  through  the  pas- 
sage, as  the  water  is  only  about  two  feet  deep.  The  view  we 
get  of  Macao  on  the  way  back  from  Taipa  is  very  pleasing: 
the  City  with  its  numerous  public  buildings  and  churches, 
with  the  Praya  Grande  in  front,  lies  between  two  masses  of 
hills;  those  crowned  by  the  Guia  Fort  on  the  one  hand,  and 
the  Penha  Hills  on  the  other. 

Tamtsai  situated  on  the  Kongpeng  Island  has  a  population 
of  say  3000  Chinese.  It  has  a  large  church,  which  is  a  con- 
spicuous object  as  seen  from  Macao. 

Colowan  is  much  smaller,  having  only,  say  1200  or  1300 
Chinese.  Both  of  these  islands  are  hilly.  A  large  number  of 
fishing  junks  are  anchored  at  Tamtsai. 


47 
LAPPA 

The  large  island  on  the  other  side  of  the  Inner  Harbour  is 
called  Lappa.  The  Portuguese  in  the  early  days  had  some 
settlements  on  it;  but  it  is  now  entirely  in  the  hands  of  the 
Chinese.  It  "is  much  larger  and  more  important  than  is  gen- 
erally supposed.  The  actual  area  is  about  thirty  square 
miles.  As  far  as  the  base  of  the  mountains  its  soil  teams 
with  vegetation.  Here  and  there  is  a  small  village,  chiefly 
inhabited  by  farmers  and  labourers  of  the  lowest  class.  Large 
tracts  of  land  covered  with  paddy-fields  which  furnish  the 
industrious  owners  with  rice  of  a  superior  quality.  Cabbages, 
turnips,  the  famous  Macao  potato,  gourds  and  pumpkins, 
peas  and  beans,  are  also  exported  from  the  island.  Sugar- 
cane, though  planted  in  many  places,  does  not  seem  able  to 
hold  its  own  against  the.  same  article  exported  from  the 
riverine  ports.  The  earth  at  the  base  of  some  of  the  Lappa 
Mountains  is  calcareous,  while  that  in  other  places  is  in- 
termingled with  soft,  whitish  stones".  There  are  several 
very  pretty  walks  to  be  taken  on  Lappa  rambling  by  Chinese 
footpaths  near  the  shores  on  more  level  ground,  or  wander- 
ing up  amongst  the  hills,  or  penetrating  up  the  valleys,  rock- 
strewn  with  gigantic  boulders,  piled  in  the  utmost  confusion 
one  on  the  top  of  the  other. 

A  very  pretty  walk  may  be  had  by  taking  a  sampan  and 
crossing  over  to  this  other  side  of  the  Inner  Harbour,  to  a 
stone  pier  at  a  place  called  Shek-kok-tsui,  Stony  Point. 
This  landing  place  is  nearly  opposite  to  Camoens'  Gardens. 
The  time  it  may  take  to  go  across  depends  entirely  upon  the 
state  of  the  tide:  the  journey  over  the  water  may  take  forty 
minutes,  or  only  twenty-five.  Some  very  fine  views  of  Macao 
and  its  guardian  forts  are  obtained.  Arrived  on  the  other 
side,  you  have  the  choice  of  several  walks:  you  may  keep 
by  the  water's  edge,  or  you  may  strike  up  in  to  a  valley 
strewn  with  great  masses  of  boulders,  left  piled  up  in  most 
wonderful  positions  by  the  denudation  of  the  soil  with  trop- 
ical rains.  These  boulders  covering  the  beds  of  the  nullah  p 
are  of  splendid  finely  grained  granite.  Mumerous  pretty 
ferns  are  to  be  found,  and  when  in  season  sweet  honeysuckle, 


48 

rhodomyrtis,  and  other  flowers  repay  one  for  any  fatigue 
from  the  rough  walk.  A  curious  sort  of  large  lizard,  six  or 
eight  inches  long,  may  be  seen  here.  If  one  is  about  the 
stumps  of  a  bush,  it  looks  uncommonly  like  a  part  of  the 
bush  itself.  They  are  not  all  the  same  colour,  one  seen  by 
the  writer  had  its  head  and  shoulders  of  one  shade,  while 
another  was  entirely  black  and  rapidly  disappeared  down  a 
hole  in  the  earth.  The  Chinese  say  they  are  very  poisonous. 
A  rickshaw  coolie,  whom  we  engaged  one  day,  had  a  won- 
drous story  to  tell  about  the  danger  of  being  bitten  by  this 
lizard  at  a  certain  hour. 

THE  TEN  TABLES 

On  landing  on  Lappa  at  the  spot  mentioned  above,  take 
the  path  to  the  right  as  above,  and  after  walking  half  a  mile 
or  nearly  a  mile,  the  path,  it  will  be  seen,  bifurcates.  Eschew 
the  lower  one  near  the  water,  and  follow  the  other  which 
slightly  trends  up.  After  a  short  distance,  turn  up  a  cul- 
tivated valley,  reaching  a  mile  or  two  into  the  hills  and  go 
on  to  its  upper  end,  where  will  be  found  a  stream  crossed 
by  bridges,  numerous  little  shrines,  larger  buildings,  wind- 
ing paths,  inscribed  rocks,  a  shed  with  stone  tables,  large 
enough  to  picnic  a  good  company  and  all  the  other  adjuncts 
with  which  the  Chinese  delight  to  embellish  a  lovely  nook, 
already  wild  and  beautiful  in  its  natural  state.  A  small 
pagoda  is  seen  up  the  rocky  bed  of  the  stream.  The  Chinese 
call  the  place  the  Chuk  Sin  T'ung  (Chook  Seen  T'oong), 
The  Grotto  of  the  Bamboo  Fairy. 

THE  SILVER  VALLEY 

This  is  also  on  Lappa;  but  at  the  Southern  end,  near  the 
entrance  to  the  Inner  Harbour.  From  the  top  of  the  Penha 
Hills  is  seen  on  the  opposite  shore  of  the  Inner  Harbour  a 
beautiful  green  valley:  this  is  the  Silver  Valley  (Ngun  Hang 
in  Chinese).  It  is  a  very  pleasant  excursion  to  take  on  the 
evening  of  a  summer's  day,  or  the  morning  or  afternoon  of 
a  winter's  one,  the  only  thing  to  be  sure  of  is  that  it  is  high 
tide,  otherwise  there  is  a  mud  flat  which  prevents  landing. 
Going  down  to  the  Pray  a  Menduca,  a  sampan  may  be  hired 
for  twenty  cents  for  the  trip.  Rowing  across  and  down  the 


49 

Harbour,  in  about  twenty  minutes,  one  arrives  at  some  large 
rocks  at  the  north  side  of  a  sandy  beach.  Landing  on  these, 
you  cross  them  towards  some  native  houses  and  follow  the 
path  which  runs  between  these  houses.  In  some  of  these 
houses  the  Chinese  mou  tsoi  (mooee  tsoi)  or  sour  crout,  or 
salt  rotten  vegetables,  is  prepared.  Also  some  shallow  tank- 
like  places  are  to  be  seen  where  paddy-husks  are  being  pre- 
pared for  the  purpose  of  being  manufactured  into  Chinese 
tooth-powder,  which  is  used  to  whiten  the  grains  of  rice  after 
they  have  been  hulled.  Finally  clear  the  inodorous  habita- 
tions with  their  yelping  curs,  but  still  keeping  at  the  side  of 
the  running  streamlet,  or  rather  small  channel  of  water, 
with  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year  beautiful  green  paddy- 
tields  lying  below  you  to  the  left,  and  soon  seeing  a  stream 
Mowing  below  you  also  on  the  same  hand,  you  continue  to 
ascend  slightly,  the  scenery  being  very  pretty,  and  beautiful 
ferns  growing  about,  for  a  walk  along  this  winding  path  for 
about  a  mile  or  rather  more,  you  come  to  a  Chinese  p'ai  lau, 
or  honorific  portal,  which  you  pass  through,  still  keeping  on, 
but  slightly  more  to  the  left  and  in  two  or  there  minutes 
you  come  across  a  bewildering  confusion  of  boulders,  piled 
about  in  all  directions  in  the  valley.  If  in  difficulty  in  find- 
ing the  exact  spot,  a  native,  if  you  can  get  him  to  under- 
stand what  you  Avant,  will  point  it  out  to  you.  On  the  sv.r- 
face  of  several  of  these  boulders,  it  will  be  noticed  that  cer- 
tain spots  have  been  hammered  on,  and  these  places,  if 
struck  with  an  iron  instrument,  will  give  out  a  clear  metal- 
lic ring,  though  not  with  so  much  resonance  as  a  bell  would 
have*  The  sound  is  more  like  that  produced  by  striking  a 
piece  of  metal.  The  view  down  the  valley  from  this  spot  is 
lovely  with  a  peep  of  the  sea  at  the  end.  Quarrying  opera- 
tions have  taken  place  during  recent  years  by  which  some  of 
these  sounding  rocks  have  been  destroyed,  so  that  if  any 
difficulty  is  experienced  in  finding  the  spot,  it  is  well  to 
solicit  the  assistance  of  some  of  the  Chinese  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood to  point  out  those  that  remain. 

If  desired,  an  extension  of  this  walk  can  be  made  by  foJ- 
J owing  a  path  running  along  the  hill  slopes  at  right  angles 


50 

to  the  path  from  the  Inner  Harbour,  and  which  strikes  off 
from  the  nighbourhood  of  the  p'ai-lau.  It  is  a  most  plea- 
sant and  interesting  walk  up  the  hill  by  Chinese  paths. 
Passing  a  Chinese  Imperial  Maritime  Station,  one  gets  a 
splendid  view  of  Macao.  Then  descending  one  soon  gets  on 
level  ground,  passing  a  guard-house  of  the  Customs,  one; 
can  continue  the  walk  to  the  Ten  Tables,  by  the  path  al- 
ready described,  or  taking  a  sampan  at  the  pier  mentioned 
a  few  pages  back  return  to  Macao. 

Pak  Shanleng 

This  is  the  name  of  the  range  of  high  hills  beyond  the  Bar- 
rier on  Chinese  territory,  as  as  well  as  the  name  of  a  village 
of  a  thousand  or  two  thousand  inhabitants,  situated  not  far 
from  the  foot  of  the  hills.  This  is  about  the  only  place  by 
which  one  can  go  by  riskshaw  out  of  Macao,  as  the  road  is 
broad  for  a  Chinese  road.  Leaving  the  Barrier,  the  path 
for  a  few  steps  is  through  sand  which  is  so  heavy  a  drag  on 
the  wheels  of  the  vehicle  that  it  is  only  fair  to  the  men  to 
walk  till  you  come  to  a  stone  (granite),  paved  road.  Soon 
after  starting  the  road  forks:  that  to  the  right  leads  to  the 
village  of  Shui  Chung,  some  of  the  white  houses  of  which 
are  seen  in  the  distance.  The  road  branching  off  to  thtj 
right  is  the  one  to  be  followed.  Our  way  here  is  through  a 
perfect  necropolis;  for  the  Chinese  graves  are  thicker  than 
is  generally  the  case,  and  more  like,  in  their  rows  upon  rows, 
the  way  in  which  graves  are  disposed  in  a  foreign  Cemetery, 
though  near  large  cities,  even  in  China,  the  houses  of  the 
dead  are  thus  placed  close  together.  After  getting  off  the 
isthmus,  they  are,  however  not  so  very  abundant,  though 
common  enough.  The  stone  road  soon  ends  and  sandy 
pieces  occur  every  little  distance,  and  into  the  ruts  filled 
with  the  loose  sand,  the  wheels  of  the  vehicle  sink,  giving 
the  passenger  some  very  rough  jolts. 

After  leaving  the  isthmus,  the  road  winds  through  fields, 
principally  rice,  with  a  small  range  of  low  hills  to  the  right, 
while  the  higher  range  looms  off  in  the  distance  and  further 
to  the  north-west.  Some  footpaths  lead  to  the  hills  off  to 


51 

the  right.  The  land  is  open  towards  the  Inner  Harbour, 
hut  after  a  while  a  low  range  rises  a  little  way  off  between 
it  and  us.  On  one  low  height  are  the  ruins  of  an  old  Chinese 
fort.  Occasionally  we  cross  the  narrow  channels  of  water 
by  the  small  rough  bridges,  consisting  of  slabs  of  granite 
laid  side  by  side,  when  the  rickshaw  coolie  has  to  exercise 
special  care  to  prevent  the  wheels  of  his  rickshaw  being 
caught  in  the  spaces  between  the  slabs.  In  nearly  half  an 
hour  from  the  Barrier  we  reach,  at  a  small  distance  from 
the  path,  a  small  pagoda,  (a  man-t'ap),  which  looks  new, 
and  has  been  rebuilt,  as  far  as  we  can  learn.  This  pagoda 
is  visible  from  the  Barrier.  A  footpath  leads  off  to  the  left 
by  which  one  goes  to  Ts  4n  Shan,  the  Casa  Branca  of  the 
Portuguese.  It  is  about  two  or  three  miles  further  off.  Stop 
at  this  place  and  give  the  coolies  a  rest  under  the  shade  of 
some  beautiful  trees  and  at  the  side  of  a  small  temple. 
From  this  spot  a  path  also  leads  off  by  which,  amongst  other 
places,  one  may  go  to  Canton.  After  a  rest,  we  go  to  the  gate 
of  the  village  (which  latter  was  built  in  the  Ming  Dynasty) 
in  a  brick  wall.  There  is  also  a  wall  formed  of  rough-hewn 
slabs  of  granite,  piled  upon  the  top  of  each  other,  header 
and  stretcher  fashion,  and  without  any  cement,  rising  to 
the  height  of  fifteen  or  twenty  feet  and  the  length  of  a  slab 
in  width.  This  wall  surrounds  a  great  part  of  the  village 
and  attests  to  the  truth  of  what  our  jinrickshaw  coolies  tell 
us,  viz.,  that  the  village  is  a  wealthy  one.  Compradores 
and  men  who  have  been  in  Shanghai,  Foochow,  and  Cali- 
fornia retire  here.  Many  of  the  houses  are  good,  and 
though  there  are  poor  ones,  not  so  many  as  in  some  places. 
About  half  an  hour  takes  us  back  to  the  Barrier  and  about 
the  same  time  to  the  Praya. 

The  Hot  Springs 

It  is  a  pleasant  and  interesting  trip  to  these  at  a  place 
called  Yung  Mak,  north-north-west  of  Macao  and  about 
twenty  miles  by  steamlaunch,  which  has  to  be  specially 
hired  for  the  trip,  unless  one  goes  by  the  passenger-boat, 
which  leaves  at  8  A.  M.  returning  at  3  P.  M.  If  a  steam- 


52 

launch  is  specially  hired,  one  of  those  going  generally  to 
Taipa  is  open  to  a  bargain. 

There  are  three  pools  at  the  Hot  Spring,  but  they  are  said 
to  vary  in  number  and  position  from  time  to  time.  And  it  is 
further  stated  that  cold  springs  formerly  existed  there.  Tin- 
following  short  account  of  an  excursion  to  them  by  a  party, 
of  which  the  author  was  one,  may  give  SOTIIC  idea  to  intend  - 
ing  tourists  what  they  are  like.  All  preliminaries  bein.u 
arranged,  and  starting  from  the  Inner  Harbour  at  about  9. 
15  A.  M.,  we  steam  up  the  Harbour,  close  to  Green  Island, 
when  we  turn  to  the  left  and  proceeding  about  half  an  hour 
from  the  wharf,  we  pass  Ts'in  Shan  where  there  are  three 
or  four  Chinese  (native)  revenue  cruisers:  one  lot  collecting 
kerosene  dues;  one  for  opium  dues;  and  another  for  general 
goods.  Even  before  we  reach  these  vessels  there  are  two  or 
three  Customs  mat-sheds.  After  a  while  the  stream  nar- 
rows. There  are  high  hills  in  the  back-ground  with  low- 
lying  flat  ground,  and  bushes  and  groves  every  now  and 
then,  with  villages  lying  at  the  foot  of  the  hills,  lower  hills 
being  near  at  hand.  We  pass  Sha  Mei,  opposite  a  temple-. 
In  nearly  an  hour  after  leaving  Macao,  we  enter  a  river, 
another  branch  coming  in  from  the  left,  as  the  stream  flows. 
Extensive  muddy  fields  are  on  each  side  of  the  stream  and 
the  hills  recede  some  distance  back  from  the  river.  At  10. 15 
A.  M.  we  turn  round  to  the  right  and  pass  a  Chinese 
(native)  revenue-cruiser  lying  to  the  right.  The  scenery  is 
pretty.  Owing  to  the  banks  hiding  the  different  channels 
and  water-ways,  boats  seem  to  be  sailing  along  the  fields. 
Pretty  little  clumps  of  bamboo  with  mat  sheds  below  them 
and  low-wooded  hills  with  temples  nestling  at  their  feet  all 
add  to  the  picturesqueness  of  the  other  scenery. 

We  arrive  at  our  destination  at  11.  40  A.  M.;  going  up  n 
small  branch  from  the  stream,  we  finally  turn  into  a  chan- 
nel about  the  breadth  of  the  boat.  Landing  we  walk  about 
forty  feet  and  get  to  a  pool  about  twelve  feet  across  and 
several  feet  deep,  nearly  circular,  out  of  the  centre  of  which 
bubbles  are  coming  up.  The  water  is  as  hot  to  the  touch 
as  a  very  hot  bath.  A  narrow  channel  connects  this  with 


53 

the  stream. 

About  two  minutes  walk  from  this  first  one,  we  come  to 
another  not  connected  with  the  stream  as  the  other  was.  It 
is  about  six  feet  across  and  nearly  circular,  a  little  longer 
than  wide  with  bubbles  rising  from  several  places  at  the 
bottom.  The  water  is  much  hotter  than  the  other — very 
much  hotter  in  fact.  It  runs  out  by  a  small  channel,  a 
stream  rising  from  it.  The  thermometer  we  have  with  us 
rises  as  high  as  it  can  when  put  into  this  pool  and  not  being 
able  to  rise  any  higher  stops  at  148. 

One  and  a  half  minute's  walk  from  the  second  brings  us 
to  the  third,  about  eight  feet  by  five  feet  in  dimensions.  It 
is  clearer,  connected  with  the  outside  water,  and  not  so  hot 
as  the  second  one,  but  hotter  than  the  first.  The  thermo- 
mether  rises  to  142,  A  very  little  stream,  almost  imper- 
ceptable  rises  from  it.  Occasionally  a  few  bubbles  come  up 
from  the  spots  on  the  bottom. 

These  three  pools  are  situated  amidst  a  lot  of  paddy  fields 
with  some  huts — shanties,  close  to  the  third,  an  amphithea- 
tre of  hills  all  around.  "They  are  situated  in  a  valley  sur- 
rounded by  high  mountains,  and  from  the  position  of  the 
springs  at  the  centre  of  the  circle  of  mountains  it  is  general- 
ly considered  that  the  site  is  that  of  an  extinct  volcano." 

That  these  pools  were  the  subject  of  superstition  was 
evinced  by  some  candles  placed  at  one  of  them  by  the 
Chinese;  at  the  same  time  the  Chinese  is  nothing  if  not 
utilitarian,  and  in  this  case  they  turn  them  to  account  by 
plucking  fowls  at  the  hottest  of  them. 

The  Island  of  San  Joao 

The  Portuguese  first  came  to  China  in  the  year  1517,  and 
at  first  they  appear  to  have  anchored  at  a  port  on  the  north- 
west coast  of  the  Island  of  San  Joao,  San-cheun,  San-chuen- 
shan,  San-shan,  Sancian,  or  St.  John,  as  it  has  been  various- 
ly written. 

Here  they  do  not  appear  to  have  built  houses,  but  we 
read  of  a  fort  having  been  erected,  which,  however,  did  not 
stand  long.  The  port  of  Tamao  was  closed  to  foreign  trade, 


54 

and  the  whole  of  this  trade  in  A.  D.  1554  was  concentrated 
at  Lampacao,  an  island  visible  from  Macao  on  a  clear  day. 
In  one  of  the  lives  of  the  great  poet  Camoens,  prefixed  to 
an  edition  of  his  own  wrorks  in  his  own  language,  it  is  sai  1 
that  the  poet  lived  at  Lampacao,  and  there  are  good  rea- 
sons for  believing  that  the  Portuguese  had  fixed  habitations 
on  this  island  of  Lampacao. 

The  "Great  Apostle  of  the  East,"  as  he  has  been  called, 
and  the  first  Jesuit  missionary  to  China,  St.  Francis  Xavier, 
died  December  1552  in  sight  of  that  land  for  which  he  so 
earnestly  prayed,  and  was  buried  on  this  island.  A  monu- 
ment was  erected  to  him  in  1639  with  the  following  inscrip- 
tion in  Portuguese: — 

I.  H.  S. 

Aqui  foi  sepul 

tado  S.  Francis 

co  Xavier  doco 

Panhia  de  Jesus 

Aplodo  Oriente 

Este  Padrao 

Selevanten  no 

Anno 

1639 

There  is  also  an  inscription  in  Chinese. 

Pilgrimages  are  annually  made  by  the  Roman  Catholics 
of  Hongkong  and  Macao  to  this  tomb  on  the  saint's  day. 
His  body,  however,  does  not  rest  here  now.  As  already 
noted  a  large  painting  of  his  lonely  death  is  hung  in  St. 
Joseph's  College  Chapel  in  Macao. 

The  island  is  stated  to  be  five  leagues  in  length  from  N. 
N.  E.  to  S.  S.  W.  Approaching  it  from  the  east,  it  looks  as 
if  separated  in  the  middle,  giving  rise  to  the  supposition 
that  it  was  two  islands  instead  of  one.  "There  are  several 
bays  on  its  north-west  and  eastern  sides.  That  of  Shan- 
chowtong  on  the  north-west  appears  to  have  been  the  one 
usually  frequented  by  the  Portuguese  traders,  and  is  the 
place  where  St.  Francis  Xavier  was  interred.  It  was  then 
called  Tamao;  that  is  according  to  Portuguese  pronuncia- 


55 

tion  Tangao,  or  Ta'aou,  The  Great  Bay.  The  Portuguese 
first  traded  here  in  1517.  In  1521  they  were  expelled;  but 
before  1542  they  appear  almost  to  have  deserted  it  for  Lam- 
pacao,  to  the  eastward.  Macao  began  to  rise  in  promin- 
ence. The  last  mention  of  Lampacao  states  that  there  were 
500  or  600  Portuguese  living  permanently  there. 

There  is  a  little  chapel  on  the  island  called  after  the  saint, 
doubtless,  St.  Francis,  which  was  almost  completely  ruined 
by  the  Chinese. 

There  is  a  village  on  the  island  and  a  mission-house  and 
chapel  about  a  mile  away  from  the  chapel  already  mention- 
ed. There  is  a  "bust  of  the  saint  erected  upon  a  massive 
stone  pedestal,  about  thirty  feet  in  height,  situated  some 
two  hundred  yards  above  the  church,  to  mark  the  place 
where  the  great  saint  breathed  his  last." 

History 

The  history  of  Macao  is  a  most  interesting  one.  In  the 
first  place  because  the  Portuguese  were  earliest  amongst 
European  nations  to  settle  in  China;  and  secondly,  on  ac- 
count of  the  sturdy  behavour  of  the  Senators  of  this  valorous 
little  city  in  asserting  their  rights  and  fighting  for  them.  Of 
course,  to  find  the  counterpart  of  some  of  the  earliest  Por- 
tuguese arrivals  in  far  Cathay  one  must  read  the  story  of 
the  adventurers  in  our  own  Queen  Elizabeth's  time,  who 
sailed  over  sea  and  main  fighting  for  the  mere  love  of  con- 
quest and  power  to  rule  over  others.  There  are  two  sides 
to  the  story  of  how  Macao  came  into  the  hands  of  the  Por- 
tuguese as  related  to  us  by  its  historians.  The  Sweedish 
Knight,  Sir  Andrew  L Jungs  ted  t,  espoused  what  would  be 
the  Chinese  side  of  the  story  and  proved  entirely  to  his  own 
satisfaction  that  the  sovereignty  of  Portugal  over  Macao 
was  mythical  against  the  opinion  that  had  been  held  on  the 
subject.  There  can  be  but  little  doubt  that  the  rights  of 
property  were  not  subjected  to  such  scrupulous  criticism  in 
the  16th  century  as  Lungstedt  subjected  them  to  in  the. 
19th.  Again  we  say  that  men  of  the  stamp  of  the  16th 
settlers  at  Macao,  of  the  spirit  of  the  English  adventurers 


56 

of  the  period  of  our  Queen  Elizabeth,  for  it  may  be  conceded 
at  once,  would  not  trouble  their  heads  much  as  to  any  for- 
mal cession  of  territory  to  them.  Might  was  right  in  those 
days  and  still  is  to  a  large  extent.  All  the  better,  if  after 
the  material  assistance  rendered  the  Chinese  against  the 
pirates  which  infested  the  southern  coast  of  China,  the  Por- 
tuguese obtained  some  document  as  written  proof  of  tacit  or 
or  verbal  permission  to  settle,  or  remain,  being  already  set- 
tled, in  Macao.  The  Portuguese  say  there  was  such  a  docu- 
ment; but,  unfortunately  the  Chinese  would,  of  course,  deny 
it;  a  denial  by  Chinese  statesmen  is  of  no  value,  nor  even 
is  it  unfortunately,  amongst  European  statesmen.  Know- 
ing what  we  do  of  the  Chinese,  we  cannot  expect  them  to 
acknowledge  it  even  if  it  could  be  produced  at  this  day, 
for  with  the  Machiavallian  policy,  so  loved  by  them,  it 
would  be  repudiated  by  Peking,  if  signed  in  Canton,  or 
some  fatal  flaw  would  be  detected,  in  what  probably  was  a 
simple  document,  not  ironclad  against  the  red-hot  argu- 
ments of  Chinese  plenipotentiaries,  unless  combatted  by  a 
mailed  fist  and  a  firm  attitude. 

Martinoe  de  Nello  and  Castro's  memorandum  relates  that 
the  jurisdiction  of  Macao  extended  over  conquered  tracts  in 
the  Hong  Shan  District  where  Portuguese  owned  farms  and 
kept  the  Colony  supplied  with  their  products.  En  passant, 
we  may  remark,  that  on  Lappa  itself  the  Portuguese  were 
settled  on  various  spots,  and  probably  even  on  Monkey 
Island;  but  these  have  all  passed  out  of  their  hands,  the 
Chinese  according  to  the  above  memorandum,  entered  upon 
the  conquered  tracts  in  the  Hong  Shan  District,  the  fertility 
of  the  soil  being  the  attraction,  and  the  mandarins  resumed 
their  jurisdiction.  This  seems  an  explicit  enough  state- 
ment, and  Mr.  Montalto  de  Jesus,  to  whom  we  are  indebted 
for  some  of  the  above  information,  goes  on  to  show  how  a 
bribe  given  to  a  corrupt  madarin  was  eventually  transfor- 
med into  ground  rent.  So  many  different  assertions  have 
been  made  on  the  subject  that  the  matter  does  not  seem  so 
clear  as  one  would  like  to  have  it;  but  then  many  a  histori- 
cal subject  is  in  a  somewhat  bemuddled  state.  For  ex- 


57 

ample,  Ljungstedt  quotes  a  former  Bishop  of  Macao  who 
was  an  acting  Governor  of  the  Colony,  in  1777  to  this  effect 
that  "By  paying  ground  rent,  the  Portuguese  acquired 
the  temporary  use  and  profit  of  Macao  ad  libitum  of  th<- 
Emperor."  We  unfortunately  have  not  the  original  docu- 
ment before  us  to  see  whether  the  argument  or  the  context 
alters  or  qualifies  this  statement.  And  we  must  say  thai 
Mr.  M.  de  Jesus  in  his  admirably  written  papers  in  "The 
China  Review,"  since  published  with  others  in  bookforni, 
states  in  a  most  conclusive  manner  the  Portuguese  case. 

But  really  the  matter  is  of  little  "consequence  nowadays, 
as,  if  any  real  flaw  existed  in  Portugal's  claim  to  Macao,  it 
lias  been  rectified  and  all  doubt  set  at  rest  by  the  recent 
treaty  between  Portugal  and  China.  The  question  at  the 
present  day  has  simply  an  academic  interest.  Portugal'* 
absorption  into  the  Spanish  kingdom  in  1582  would  natural- 
ly be  expected  to  affect  the  relation  of  Macao  with  Europe ; 
but  while  acknowledging  the  new  condition  of  affairs  in  the- 
mother-country,  the  Macaoese  patriotically  used  their  best 
endeavours  to  prevent  Spanish  Governors  from  having  rule 
over  their  city  and  the  result  was  the  Senate,  to  which  elec- 
tion was  once  in  three  years,  and  universal  suffrage,  i.  e., 
every  Portuguese  resident  was  entitled  to  vote  by  ballot  for 
:-ix  electors,  who  drew  up  lists  of  persons  fit  to  be  Senator*. 
The  Chief  Justice,  with  powers  of  an  Administrator,  from 
them  prepared  another  and  the  final  decision  rested  with 
the  •  Viceroy  of  Goa,  as  well  as  the  appointment  of  other 
officials.  A  general  Council  deliberated  upon  the  most  im- 
portant matters,  being  composed  of  ex-senators,  Bishop  and 
clergy,  Capitao  de  Terra,  and  the  citizens,  all  the  latter- 
capable  of  bearing  arms  formed  a  municipal  guard.  The 
Government  in  Goa  .determined  to  have  a  company  of  100 
sepoys  and  50  artillery  in  Macao  in  1784. 

The  revenue  in  these  days  consisted  of  the  Customs  dues 
which  were  levied  in  kind  and  sold  at  auction.  The  Char- 
ter of  the  Senate  bears  date  1586  and  was  issued  by  the 
Viceroy  of  Portuguese  India.  A  capitao  de  mer  Commi- 
dere  also  had  a  share  in  the  Government  of  Macao,  then* 


58 

being  no  Governor  in  these  days. 

We  cannot  follow  the  bold  action  of  the  Senators  and 
people  of  Macao  in  standing  up  for  what  they  considered 
their  rights  in  a  short  account  like  this.  "In  the  begin- 
ning of  the  eighteenth  century"  Governors  and  Captains 
General  came  from  Goa,  with  the  intention  of  balancing 
the  overgrowing  preponderance  of  the  Senate.  Violent 
party  disputes  arose;  but  the  Senators  generally  got  the 
better  of  their  antagonists. 

Macao  was  a  most  flourishing  place  in  the  18th  century: 
both  the  East  India  Company  and  the  Dutch  Company 
having  establishment  there,  the  former  company  having  a 
library  of  4000  volumes  in  Macao.  The  Chinese  continued  a 
semblance  of  authority,  having  a  Custom's  House  in  the 
place  and  taking  500  taels  a  year  as  rental  from  the  Por- 
tuguese till  1849,  when  Governor  Ferreira  de  Amaral  refu- 
sed to  pay  it  any  longer  and  drove  out  the  Chinese  officials. 

In  this  connection  the  two  following  extracts  from  the 
Friend  of  China,  a  paper  published  in  South  China  may  be 
of  interest: — 

The  Governor  has  prohibited  the  Chinese  officers  of  Cus- 
toms from  levying  duties  upon  goods  or  produce  exported 
from  Macao  to  ports  in  China,  or  imported  from  Chinese 
ports  *  *  *  (With  the  view  that  obtained  as  to  the  pos- 
session of  Macao,  the  paper  goes  on  to  say)  It  is  true  that 
Macao  was  and  strictly  speaking  is,  a  feudatory  possession, 
paying  an  annual  ground  rent,  or  rather  supposed  to  pay, 
for  we  believe  the  rent  has  not  been  collected  for  years,  but 
without  enquiring  very  minutely  into  the  strict  legality  of 
the  step,  we  certainly  admire  the  independence  of  feeling 
and  courage  displayed  by  Signor  Amaral.  With  a  force  of 
not  over  200  disciplined  troops  and  a  civic  guard  not  much 
to  be  depended  upon  he  has,  to  use  an  American  vulgarism, 
•'regularly  stumped"  the  Celestial  Empire.  The  Governor 
vowed  to  put  into  Gaol  three  officials  (of  some  rank  whom 
Sen  [the  Viceroy  of  Canton]  had  appointed  to  investigate 
the  circumstances  connected  with  the  deportation  of  the 
Chinese  officers  of  Customs)  if  they  landed  in  Macao  (21st. 


59 

Mar^h  1849 V  The  Governor  of  Macao,  taking  advantage 
of  the  existing  difficulties,  has  deported  the  Chinese  officers 
of  Customs  who  have  been  in  the  habit  of  collecting  duties 
in  the  settlement  of  Portugal.  He  has  thus  declared  Macao 
to  be  perpetually  independent  of  China;  the  Chinese  affect 
to  look  upon  the  Portuguese  as  tenants  at  will  and  until 
recently  the  Mandarins  at  Casa  Branca  exercised  the  right 
of  sovereignty  over  the  Chinese  inhabitants — taxing  and 
punishing  them  without  consulting  the  Portuguese.  Sen's* 
intentions  with  regard  to  Macao  are  not  fully  known,  in  the 
meantime  he  has  ordered  all  the  Chinese  to  leave  the 
town — which  a  good  many  of  them  have  done  and  the  con- 
tumacious Governor  and  the  Christian  inhabitants  are  to 
be  starved  into  submission."  (31st.  March  1849) 

This  action  of  Governer  Amaral  combined  with  the  cut- 
ting of  new  roads  through  some  Chinese  graves  scattered 
according  to  Chinese  custom  over  the  hills,  so  incensed  the 
neighbours  that  he  was  assassinated  while  he  was  riding  with 
his  Aide-de-camp  near  the  Barrier.  A  Chinese  presented  a 
bunch  of  flowers  to  him;  taking  this  as  an  act  of  kindness, 
he  was  taken  off  his  guard  and  brutally  murdered,  his  head 
being  taken  off  and  hidden  in  the  Mong  Ha  Temple  for  a 
while.  It  is  possible  more  sinice  that  a  reward  was  offered 
for  the  "foreign  devel's"  head.  His  ring  and  the  knife 
which  was  used  was  still  in  the  possession  of  natives  some 
years  afterwards,  The  author's  father  procured  the  knife 
eventually  from  the  Chinese  and  was  in  treaty  to  obtain 
the  ring,  but  the  negotiations  fell  through  as  doubtless  the 
villains,  or  their  friends,  or  descendants,  feared  that  the 
perpetrators  of  the  foul  deed  might  be  tracked. 

Hongkong  being  started  as  a  free  port  took  away  the 
trade  from  Macao  with  a  custom  House.  The  Portuguese 
authorities  took  steps  by  lowering  the  tariff  to  try  and  bring 
back  the  trade  again,  and  finally  it  was  made  a  free  port; 
but  unfortunately  it  was  too  late  to  have  the  desired  effect. 

The  Coolie  trade  was  started  and  had  its  headquarters  in 
Macao  for  many  years.  Unscrupulous  men  unfortunately 
took  it  up;  and  it  is  almost  well-nigh  impossible  with  the 


00 

exorcise  of  the  greatest  caution  to  prevent  the  Chinese  who 
net  as  gatherers  together  of  the  intending  emigrants  from 
using  all  sorts  of  tricks  to  beguile  the  innocent  country  folk, 
and  entrapping  many  against  their  will,  these  crimps  telling 
all  sorts  of  lies  to  entice  their  victims.  Brought  into  Macao, 
the  coolies  were  kept  in  large  buildings  called  barracoons, 
many  of  the  superb  mansions  of  the  former  opulent  mer- 
chants being  converted  into  these  places.  The  whole  system 
became  so  pregnant  with  abuses,  and  a  mutiny  and  a  mas- 
sacre on  one  or  two  of  the  vessels  drew  a  world-wide  atten- 
tion to  these  abuses  and  the  trade  was  abolished  in  1874. 
American  and  ships  of  other  nationalities  engaged  in  this 
coolie  traffic.  The  Author  visited  an  American  ship  lying 
in  Macao  Roads  fitted  up  for  the  embarkation  of  these  coo- 
lies in  1858  or  1850,  To  keep  the  coolies  in  good  humour 
the  Captain  had  boxes  of  Chinese  novelettes  and  fiddles  on 
board.  Some  of  the  ships  Were  fitted  out  in  Hongkong  for 
ihis  trade. 

The  fearful  typhoon  of  1874  came  as  another  disaster  to 
Macao,  laying  a  considerable  portion  of  her  buildings  in 
ruins.  The  elements  seemed  pitiless  in  their  fury  at  the 
devoted  city;  for  a  fire  broke  out  at  the  same  time  destroy- 
ing the  best  houses  in  San  Antonio  Green,  one  of  which  is 
is  still  in  ruins. 

Much  activity  has  been  displayed  of  late  in  Macao  in 
improvements  and  repairs  to  the  streets,  &c.,  such  as  the 
'aying  out  of  the  Boulevard,  known  as  the  Avenida  Vasco  da 
Gama,  the  making  of  new  roads,  and  the  general  embellish- 
ment of  the  place,  amongst  which  may  be  noticed  the  plan- 
ning of  that  portion  of  the  peninsula  known  as  the  Bella 
'Vista  and  Montana  Rnssa.  Here  on  hot  evenings  the  in- 
habitants can  repair  for  cool  breezes. 

A  new  path  has  been  made  to  lead  zig-zag  from  the  Bon. 
levard  up  to  the  centre  of  the  range  of  hills  running  between 
Oagilha's  Bay  and  the  Guia  Fort.  Here  on  the  top  a  line 
view  is  obtained — both  inland  and  out  to  sea.  Dredging  o 
the  Harbour  has  been,  or  in  to  bo,  undertaken.  An  observa- 
rory  is,  we  believe,  also  planned.  But  not  least  amongst 


in 

ihese  improvements  is  the  clearing  away  of  overcrowded, 
Insanitary  districts  and  Chinese  low  hovels  in  the  endeavour 
to  eradicate  the  plague,  which  of  late  years  has  visited,  to  a 
greater  or  lesser  extent,  Macao  as  well  as  other  portions  of 
Southern  China.  In  1894  while  the  plague  was  epidemic 
in  Hongkong  having  newly  arrived  there,  the  greatest  care 
was  taken  in  the  Holy  City  in  the  inspection  of  all  incomers 
;tnd  no  time  was  wasted.  If  any  quarters  were  considered 
insanitary  the  most  drastic  measures  were  taken  for  their 
removal.  The  Macao  authorities  deserve  the  greatest  praise 
for  their  promptitude  and  energy  in  their  attempts  to  combat 
the  plague;  and  no  unreasoning  opposition  by  the  inhabi- 
tants were  apparently  allowed  to  baulk  the  wise  plans  of  the 
Macao  officials.  The  following  will  give  some  idea  of  the 
method  employed: — "Some  suspicion  exists  regarding  cer- 
tain parts,  of  China  town,  and  in  one  locality,  the  Horta 
de  Volong,  near  St.  Lazarus  Church,  the  officers  of  the  P. 
\V.  D.  have  been  for  some  days  carrying  on  wholesale  de- 
struction, tearing  up  roads,  opening  drains,  and  in  fact  pip- 
ing the  iilthy  quarter  out  ef  existence.  Our  methods  hen*, 
are  sharp  and  summary;  a  few  hours  notice  for  the  people 
to  get  out,  and  without  further  parley  the  work  is  completed. 

If  these  plans  are  not  interrupted  in  our  sister  Colony  of 
Macao,  before  long  no  insanitary  districts  will  be  left  in  the 
place. 

Gambling  is  most  unfortunately  licensed  in  Macao,  large 
establishments  being  fitted  up  for  the  purpose,  and  with 
(heir  allurements  cause  many  fools  to  part  with  their  hard- 
earned  gains  to  the  detriment  of  their  wives  an.d  families 
and  their  own  morals.  The  revenue  of  Macao  is  pretty 
nearly  a  million  dollars — in  1901  it  was  estimated  at  $980. 
522, — and  the  expenditure  was  also  estimated  at  $606,159. 

The  freedom  from  the  squeezes  of  the  corrupt  Chinese 
oineials  in  their  own  land  and  the  lower  rentals  than  those 
prevailing  in  Hongkong  have  all  largely  tended  to  increase 
the  Chinese  population  of  Macao,  many  men  in  Hongkong 
having  houses  and  their  families  resident  there. 

Some  of  the  Canton  foreign  firms  have  branches  in  thir 


pleasant  Portuguese  Colony,  notably  amongst  them  Messrs. 
Deacon  &  Co.,  who  are  agents  for  the  P.  &  O.  Co.,  and  ,-r 
number  of  different  insurance  offices,  and  shipping  lines;  and 
;ilso  Messrs.  Herbert  Dent  <fe  Co.,  who  are  likewise  agent- 
tor  a  number  of  shipping  lines  and  insurance  offices. 

There  are  also  several  Portuguese  firms  of  general  rm-r- 
fhants  and  commission  agents. 

Numerous  stores  for  the  sale  of  foreign  goods  will  be  found 
scattered  here  and  there  in  different  parts  of  the  city.  A 
number  of  them  are  congregated  in  the  Rua  Central,  a  street 
parallel  with  the  Praya  Grande  and  a  few  steps  up  from  it 
by  some  of  the  side  streets. 

The  native  quarters  of  Macao  abound  with  native  shops 
of  all  kinds  and  descriptions. 

The  Portuguese  support  several  newspapers  published  in 
Macao  in  their  own  language;  and  there  is  one  Chinese  paper. 

Government 

Ever  since  therefore  the  days  of  the  Governor  Sr.  Feireint 
do  Amaral  when  on  the  12th  March  1849,  he  ousted  the  last 
vestiges  of  Chinese  authority  by  forcibly  closing  out  tin- 
Chinese  Custom  House  in  Macao  and  snapped  with  a  bold 
hand  the  last  links  of  connection  with  China  by  refusing  t<> 
continue  to  pay  any  longer  the  yearly  rental  of  500  taels  to 
the  Canton  authorities,  the  Chinese  mandarins  have  had  no 
power  nor  semblance  of  it  in  Macao.  We  are  told  that  t<> 
farther  accentuate  the  new  order  the  same  Governor  also 
desired  the  Mandarin  at  Macao  to  notify  his  colleagues  that 
they  must  abstain  from  sounding  the  gong — the  usual  Chi- 
nese notice  of  an  official's  advent — when  visiting  Macao,  and 
the  Portuguese  military  in  its  place  were  to  accord  the  cus- 
tomary honours  paid  to  foreign  functionaries. 

The  Governors  of  Macao  are  appointed  from  Portugal  and 
hold  besides  the  appointments  of  Ministers  Plenipotentiary 
to  the  Courts  of  Peking,  Yedo,  and  Bankok.  They  have  -,\ 
Secretary-General  who  is  also  a  Secretary  of  Legation. 

The  Secretariat  has  a  Civil  and  a  Military  Department: 
the  former  consisting  of  a  Head  of  Department  and  Assistant 


63 

Head  and  .several  Clerks;  the  latter  consisting  of  a  military 
commissioned  officer  as  Head  and  several  non-commissioned 
officers  as  clerks.  The  Chinese  Department  likewise  con- 
sists of  about  half-a-dozen  Interpreters — not  Chinese,  an 
they  all  bear  Portuguese  names.  There  are  four  Council? 
of  which  the  Governor  is  the  President.  The  Governors' 
Council  consisting  besides  of  the  Secretary-General,  the  Bisli  - 
op,  the  Judge,  the  First  and  Second  Cornmandante  of  the 
Guarde  Policial,  the  Delegado  do  Procueado  du  Coroa,  the 
Inspector  da  Fazenda,  the  President  and  Chief  of  the  Sani- 
tary Board. 

The  Provincial  Council  consists  of  the  Governor,  the  Sec- 
retary General,  the  Procurador  da  Coroa,  and  the  Inspector 
<1a  Fazenda,  the  President  of  the  Senate,  and  Chief  of  the 
Sanitary  Board  (Service  de  Saude). 

The  Council  of  Public  Works  consists  of  the  Governor,  tlu 
Director  of  Public  Works,  the  Port  and  the  Delegado  do 
Procurador  da  Coroa  and  Inspector  da  Fazenda  and  a  Sec- 
retary. The  Council  of  Public  Instruction  consists  of  the 
Governor,  the  Bishop  as  V  ice-President  and  three  members. 

The  Junta  de  Justica  or  Supreme  Court  is  divided  into  two 
Sections,  Civil  and  Military,  over  both  of  which  the  Governor 
presides,  the  members  consisting  in  the  former  of  the  Judge, 
the  two  elective  members  of  the  Provincial  Council,  the 
President  of  the  Municipal  Chambers  and  the  Procurador 
dos  Negocios  Sinicos,  while  in  the  Military  Section  the 
members  consist  of  the  Judge,  the  Commandant  of  the 
Police,  the  Capitao  de  Mer  e  Guerra,  the  Chefe  da  Estac,ao 
Naval,  and  the  Captain  of  Artillery. 

The  Judicial  Department  itself  consists  of  a  Judge,  and 
two  Deputy  Judges,  the  Attorney  General  and  others. 

The  Revenue  Department,  which  looks  after  that  import- 
ant function  of  Government,  serves  for  both  Macao  and 
Timor. 

There  are  quite  a  number  of  other  officials"  belonging  to 
other  Departments,  such  as  those  subordinate  to  the  Director 
of  Public  Works  with  its  Committee,  presided  over  by  the 
Governor. 


64 

There  is  also  an  Administrative  Council  for  Macao,  an<J 
another  for  Taipa  and  Colowan. 

There  is  a  Fire  Brigade,  a  Board  of  Health  or  Sanitary 
Hoard,  and  a  Post  Office,  a  Chinese  Department,  a  Harbour- 
Master's  Department,  a  Police  Force,  and  a  large  Municipal 
Chamber  and  Municipal  Council  and  other  Government 
Departments  and  Officials. 

The  Naval  Force  consists  of  two  gunboats,  the  'Din', 
706  tons,  6  guns  and  200  horse-power  and  the  'Bengo'  462 
tons  4  guns,  and  400  horse-power  and  the  smaller  vessel 
;Dilly'  of  100  tons,  2  guns  and  40  horse-power. 

The  Military  have  under  their  charge  the  different  forts 
and  the  Military  Hospital  of  San  Januario. 

The  Ecclesiastical  Government  of  the  Colony  is  likewise 
pretty  extensive  in  its  organisation,  headed  by  the  Bishop, 
the  Vicar-General,  and  its  Vicars,  Chaplains,  &e,  for  its 
thirteen  places  of  worship. 

Communication 

The  Hong  Kong,  Canton,  and  Macao  Steamboat  Go's.  S. 
S.  'Heung  Shan'  runs  daily  between  Hongkong  and  Macau 
leaving  the  former  port  generally  at  2  P.  M.  and  and  return- 
ing from  the  latter  at  7.30  or  8  A.  M.  usually.  But  it  would 
be  well  to  inquire  before  starting,  as  otherwise  one  may  find 
the  steamer  gone  an  hour  before  its  usual  time. 

Starting  then  from  Hongkong  we  steam  rapidly  out  of  tht 
Harbour,  the  city  and  island  showing  well  to  advantage 
from  the  deck  of  the  steamer,  as  it  steers  its  way  through 
the  numerous  ships  and  innumerable  boats  and  junks  which 
lie  thick  all  over  the  waters,  or  sail  with  the  wind  or  tack 
against  it  across  from  one  point  to  another.  But  we  rapidly 
leave  the  Harbour  behind  us,  gliding  out  through  the'Sul- 
pher  Channel,  named  after  H.  M.  S.  'Sulpher,'  and  dividing 
Hongkong  from  Green  Island.  Out  in  the  open  we  make 
for  Double  Island.  Pokfulum  soon  comes  into  view  with  its 
bungalows  and  many  of  those  on  the  Peak  are  alsa  seen, 
Passing  through  the  wider  waters,  but  with  many  islands 
scattered  all  round,  some  being  but  the  upmost  peaks  of 


some  sub-marine  mountain,  while  others  rear  massive  slopes 
into  the  air;  even  far  away  on  the  horizon  they  form  a  bound- 
ary to  the  water  in  one  direction  or  another.  The  most  of 
them  are  small,  but  none  the  less  picturesque  on  that  ac- 
count. 

At  about  2.30  p.  in.  we  reach  Cheong  Chow,  or  Long  Is- 
land, or,  as  it  is  also  called.  Dumb  Bell  Island.  This  is  now 
British,  but  was  formerly  one  of  the  stations  of  the  gunboats, 
or  revenue-cruisers,  of  the  Imperial  Maritime  Customs  of 
China  in  the  so-called  blockade  of  Hongkong.  Numerous 
Chinese  fishing-junks  are  all  about,  plying  their  trade. 
For  a  couple  of  hours  or  so  one  skirts  along  the  Southern 
shores  of  the  large  Island  of  Lan-tao,  an  island  larger  than 
Hongkong,  with  grand  mountains  culminating  in  a  peak 
3050  feet  in  height.  The  views  are  beautiful  on  a  clear  day. 
At  the  western  end  of  this  island  is  a  small  levelled  spot  on 
which  in  the  early  days  of  European  intercourse  with  China, 
the  Dutch  are  said  to  have  built  a  fort.  Then  leaving  the 
shelter  of  this  island  one  is  shortly  in  a  bit  of  more  open  sea. 
Between  4  and  5  p.  m.  Macao's  white  houses  are  seen  in  the 
distance,  after  having  first  looked  at  the  two  I.  M.  Customs 
Stations  outside  the  Colony.  In  this  vicinity  are  the  Mine  Is- 
lands as  well  as  other  islands.  It  is  a  very  pleasant  \valk 
out  from  Macao,  past  the  shore  and  by  inland  paths  to 
these  stations.  We  soon  pass  Cagilha's  Bay,  the  Cliff  Road? 
the  Lighthouse  and  rapidly  nearing  the  Holy  City,  it  opens 
out,  hills  and  forts  and  churches  coming  into  view  one  after 
the  other.  We  admire  the  beautiful  sweep  of  the  Praya 
Grande  and  then,  rounding  the  Penha  Hill,  the  Inner  Har- 
bour comes  into  sight  and  we  rapidly  enter  it.  Monkey  Is- 
Jand  (Ma  Lau  Chow)  with  another  I.  M.  Customs  Station 
(in  it  to  the  left,  and  Lappa  opposite  Macao.  A  neat  little 
Portuguese  gunboat  with  the  beautiful  Portuguese  flag 
guards  the  entrance.  The  Bar  Fort  is  passed,  the  temple 
t>i  Matsopo,  the  Barracks,  the  Harbour  Master's,  hundreds 
of  Chinese  shops,  and  finally  we  are  fastened  up  at  the  wharf, 
where  a  crowd  is  awaiting  the  arrival  of  the  steamer,  while 
M-oivs  of  roomv  rickshas  are  on  shore,  ready  to  wheel  us  off 


to  any  of  the  three  Hotels,  or  wherever  we  want  10  go.  The 
Hotels  are  the  Boa  Vista,  the  Macao,  and  the  Internacional. 

Another  steamer  belonging  to  the  same  Company  leaves 
Macao  for  Canton  in  the  early  morning  and  Canton  on  the 
alternate  days.  The  China  Merchants'  Steam  Navigation 
Company  have  also  a  steamer  or  two  on  the  line.  The  jour- 
ney takes  about  seven  or  eight  hours,  or  upwards,  depend- 
ing, of  course,  on  state  of  wind  and  tide,  &c. 

Besides  the  steamer  mentioned  above  there  is  a  smaller 
boat  that  leaves  Hongkong  for  Macao  at  7  oclock  every 
morning,  returning  the  same  day  from  Macao,  giving  the 
visitor  an  hour  or  two  or  so  in  Macao  itself. 

Jinrickshas 

There  are  a  number  of  these  useful  little  vehicles  plying 
for  hire  and  the  gradients  of  most  of  the  streets  are  not  suf- 
ficiently steep,  as  in  Hongkong,  to  prevent  them  going  up 
and  down  hill.  The  fares  of  these  licensed  vehicles,  unless 
altered  of  late,  are  as  follows: — 

An  hour,  or  anything  short  of  it,  within  the  walls  of  the 
city 5  cts. 

Outside  of  the  city  walls  for  an  hour 10  cts. 

And  for  each  extra  half-hour 5  cts. 

If  two  get  into  the  same  rickshaw,  the  price  to  be  arranged 
with  the  coolie. 

Sedan-Chairs 

There  are  about  170  of  these  plying  for  hire  on  the  streets. 
They  are  registered  like  the  rickshaws,  and  numbered,  and 
the  Bearers  have  also  a  board  with  the  fares  printed  on 
them.     If  not  recently  altered  the  fares  are: — 
From  (>  a.  in.  till  (>  p.  m. — 

One  hour 10  cts. 

Six  hours 50  cts. 

Twelve  hours $.1. — 

During  the  evening  •">  ets.  more  an  hour. 


1)7 

A  Tribute  to  Camoens 

Camoens,  noblest  of  thy  ancient  race. 
Illustrious  sires  and  noble  dames  thy  forbears. 
Adversity's  stern  rule  thy  youthful  school, 
A  scholar  thou;  thy  natural  tastes  most  keen; 
A  warrior  bold  with  heart  of  steel  and  thoughts 
That  hewed  their  way  spite  bitter  adverse  foes, 
Till  one  and  all  now  bend  the  rev'rent  knee 
Before  thy  shrine.     That  shrine  no  gilded  fane 
That  rears  ambitious  head  aloft  to  cope 
With  brightest  heaven;  but  buried,  hid  'midst  shade 
Of  trees  and  rocks.     And  here  thy  fav'rite  haunt, 
What  time  an  exile  thou  from  Tagus'  shore 
And  India's  strand,  thou  past  thy  happiest  days 
Amidst  these  groves,  thy  Lusiads  to  pen* 
Alas!  that  noble  gifts  so  great  as  thine 
Should  flicker  out  Jmidst  poverty  and  pain. 
Unknown,  unwept,  a  pauper's  grave  thy  fane, 
ft  matters  not  where  now  thy  dust  is  laid. 
Immortal  is  thy  fame:  thou  livest  still. 
Patane's  sylvan  shades  are  classic  ground, 
And  hallowed  by  thy  name:  they  form  a  shrine 
Where  all  who  love  the  poet's  art  shall  flock, 
To  dream  of  thee  and  all  thy  glorious  task, 
While  those  who  shunn'd  or  did  thee  grossest  ill ; 
Have  changed  to  dunt  forgot  with  all  their  works. 


ERRATA 

Page 

2    line 

7      for 

bautiful    read    beautiful. 

}) 

3      » 

15     » 

early           „ 

easy. 

i_ 

4      99 

35     M 

Cacilhas     „ 

Cacilhas. 

M 

5      » 

18    „ 

99                      99 

, 

99 

6      „ 

21  before  quiet  insert  with  its. 

99            3? 

30     „ 

Sea             „ 

the. 

* 

7      ^ 

38    for  Menduia    read 

Menduca. 

9      » 

7      » 

on                  „ 

or 

" 

9      » 

30     » 

f  reeks            „ 

freaks. 

" 

Pontugal       „ 

Portugal. 

»      » 

34    '„ 
36    „ 

Luciads         „ 
like 

Lusiads. 
to  the  state. 

10      „ 

3 

liefore  East  insert  the. 

>•             5> 

20      „ 

Luz            read 

Luiz. 

10        „ 

21       „ 

Neisceo        „ 

Nasceo. 

99             >9 

27       „ 

Cantoes        „ 

Cantos. 

II       » 

32       „ 

combalidos  „ 

Combat  idos. 

" 

12        „ 

2              9, 

folici             ,, 

felici. 

99 

„         „ 

ardito           „ 

ardite. 

99       »> 

»        ., 

antenno        ,, 

antenne. 

» 

3 

coutre           „ 

centre. 

M            >» 

ripartaft       „ 

ripartaft". 

9» 

>J            >J 

9)             9> 

giorus           „ 

giorno. 

ue                 „ 

ne. 

9> 

99             99 

5             ,9 

caderoaceonuay 

„  coltra  acconuav 

' 

»>            99 

7             99 

leictope         „ 

Ciclope. 

' 

»            J» 

chraggo        „ 

chraggio. 

( 

99              M 

8      ,',' 

aygie             „ 

aggie. 

»              >  J 

13     " 

statzu           „ 

statza. 

foruea          „ 

forma 

• 

» 

» 

vessigi          „ 

vestigi. 

?, 

»              » 

15            9 

,     funa            „ 

fama. 

j 

»>             '> 

99            9 

agginogo      „ 

aggiuago. 

>' 

»           M 

16      „     Torgunto     „ 
21      „     lovliest         „ 

Torquato. 
loveliest. 

' 

25            9 

,    cathyon        „ 

Cathayon. 

f 

„           „ 

33      „     Dr.  Hourin  ,, 

Dr.  Bowring. 

t 

99              99 

36      „     gruto             „ 

gruta. 

99             9) 

38      , 

,     sandado        „ 

saudado. 

f 

13       » 

3 

,     fresqui  dao  „ 

fresquidao. 

t 

99               ;  9 

4 

far 

ia. 

aserbus         „ 

acerbus. 

99 

»               „ 

6 

mariosos      „ 

maviosos. 

ff 

»               >J 

,, 

sous              ?, 

sons. 

terrivies        „ 

terriveis. 

15 

On 

Ou. 

modulon       „ 

mcKlulou. 

99 

»               » 

^ff 

26 

pateruels      „ 
bellone         „ 

paternels. 
Bellone. 

cueillet         „ 

cueillit. 

99 

99            '> 

34 

J'aiuais         „ 

J'aimais. 

* 

salmer           „ 

saluer. 

99            99 

J 

fegas             „ 

fuyais. 

39 

famveus        ,, 

Camoes. 

Domine        „ 

d'origine. 

9J 

99             99 

40 

voyaeur        „ 
religeux          „ 

voyageur. 
religieux. 

M          M 

*7 

Fronnes        ,, 

Frondes. 

69 


Page 


„  line 

8     for     Fervebnt     read      Fervebat. 

»      » 

9 

„    Camooentis  „        Camoentis. 

§ 

10 

„     Signnm          „         Signum. 

»             , 

» 

after  Signum  insert  et. 

„              , 

19 

„     ingeni         read      ingenii. 

»             > 

20 

„     perene          „         perenne. 

»>             > 

21 

„    quaerit          „         qurerit. 

»• 

24 

„     Redens         .,         Spernens. 

„              , 

„     sepulchrorum  „  sepulchrorumque. 

,,               9 

>t 

„     inauess         „         inanes. 

15           » 

27 

„     Tazenda        „         Fazenda. 

29 

„     Procurator    „         Procurador. 

16      " 

20 

,      partioned      „         partitioned. 

17            5' 

22 

5 

,    opportunity  „      opportunity. 
,    En                      „        Em. 

99 

,    after  o  insert          Governador  e. 

»            >J 

6 

,    d'esta                 „         da. 

» 

7 

,    Etreiro               „         letreiro. 

9>            99 

,    le  aldade          „        lealdade. 

8 

,     Conhecu            „         conheceo. 

" 

99 

,    cidade               ,,         meradores. 

17         M 

II 

,    entablatuer       „         entablature. 

17 

„     Secretarix         ,,         Secretaria. 

>» 

35 

„     Concellio          „         Conselho. 

18     ',', 

17 

before  way  insert       the. 

„     „ 

25 

„     Vrgini               „         Virgini. 

21       „ 

3 

„     Lourenco          „         Ix)urenco. 

22      „ 

17 

„     Monha              ,,         Mongha. 

24      „ 

5 

„     Vincente           „         Vicente. 

„        „ 

6 

„    nascao                „        nasceo. 

»>        j> 

16 

„    his                     „         has. 

25        » 

10 

before  Praya     insert  the. 

24 

LDrenzo        read      Lorenco. 

»        » 

28 

Agostino           „         Agostiriho. 

27        » 

10 

,       coin                   „        coign. 

29        „ 

25 

,    Fransco             ,.         Francisco. 

32 

Monga              „         Mongha. 

30        „ 

5 

>         »                    M             >t 

31         » 

23 

,         „                    „             „ 

32             9, 

8 

„     incarceraton     „        incarceration. 

33      »• 

7 

.,    Janario             ,,         Jan  uario. 

34      »> 

17 

„    be                    „        de. 

35      M 

15 

„     alread              „         already. 

37      »» 

15 

„     Calx>                „         Caho. 

29 

before  Convent  insert  the. 

»      » 

22 

„     Lourenco       read      Lourenco. 

j>      j> 

27 

„    Canosimas       „         Canocinas. 

26 

„     Italiae              „         Italian. 

»      „ 

27 

„     baving              „         having. 

»      „ 

32 

before    the  insert  by 

38      „ 

„    ba                  „        da. 

39      » 

26 

„     Cosa              read         Rosa. 

4^*             9' 

18 

before  Joao  insert  S. 

41 

24 

„    Cacilha         read      Cacilha. 

»> 

29 

„     Oude               „         Onde. 

42      „ 

3 

„    Camoens          „         Camoens. 

14 

„    Beneniseito      „         Benenireito. 

Page 

42 

line 

I  S 

for 

Isuiitor         read 

Mililar. 

91 

j} 

20 

99 

Ordem             „ 

C^rdene. 

99 

99 

M 

22 

99 

Cacalleiro        „ 

Cavalleiro. 

99 

M 

24 

99 

Fidalho            ., 

Fidaleo. 

M 

^ 

26 

Parao  ViscDmte  ,, 

Barao  Vi.«conde. 

}) 

99 

27 

99 

Comamedalha  „ 

Com  a  medalha. 

tf 

43 

M 

2 

>9 

Cham              „ 

Chan. 

M 

13 

before  Bica  insert 

The. 

, 

44 

w 

15 

99 

de                 read 

da. 

. 

44 

35 

benefitted      „ 

benefited. 

9" 

45 

„ 

5 

9> 

remidying     „ 

remedying. 

99 

46 

J? 

6 

9> 

Areia             „ 

Areca. 

99 

49 

B 

10 

after     clear   insert   of. 

99 

99 

ly 

>? 

for              read 

after. 

M 

2O 

9J 

there             „ 

three. 

Page 

51 

line 

14 

before  Stop  insert  We. 

54 

21 

„     Selevantem     read  Selevantou. 

55 

. 

23 

99 

Sweedish     „ 

Swedish. 

56 

15 

99 

Machiavallean  „   Machiavellian. 

w 

34 

9> 

Madarin       „ 

mandarin. 

v 

M 

Sovereignty  „ 

sovereignty. 

?> 

35 

' 

Lungstedt     „ 

Ljungstedt. 

^ 

99 

21 

9» 

Martinoe      „ 

Martinho. 

»9 

,, 

99 

„ 

Nello 

Mello. 

S7 

27 

99 

vicerey         „ 

viceroy. 

eg 

99 

12 

establishment  „ 

establishments. 

» 

99 

16 

de 

do 

9> 

36 

99 

Sen               „ 

Seu. 

>9 

» 

59 

9> 

9 
15 

9> 

Governer       „ 

9» 

Governor. 

99 

„ 

„ 

23 

,, 

sinice              „ 

sinico. 

25 

99 

was                 „ 

were. 

* 

60 

99 

99 

Montana      „ 

Montanha. 

?J 

61 

99 

13 

9> 

were               „ 

was. 

99 

99 

ef 

of. 

62 

18 

Feireira         „ 

Ferreira. 

63 

9 

Procueado     „ 

Procurado. 

WO 

17 

before  Port  insert  Captain  of  the. 

)> 

" 

9 

21 

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Justica          „ 

Justicia. 

28 

Mer             read 

Mar. 

;; 

64 

' 

9 

9) 

» 

706                „ 
6 

I29' 

)> 

200                    „ 

700. 

99 

10 

&  II     ..  strike  out  and  the  Bengo, 

99 

462 

tons  4  guns  and 

400  horse  power. 

9> 

65 

99 

22 

for    Mime       read 

Nine. 

INDEX. 


A. 

Administrative  Council 64. 

Alloys 8. 

Almeida,  The 44. 

Amacao,  Temple  of 27-28. 

Amaral,  Governor 28,  58,  59. 

Artisan  Training  School 39-40. 

Assassination  of  Governor  Amaral 59. 

Astronomical  observations 9. 

Asylums 35,  38-39. 

Attorney  General , 63. 

Avoneda  Vasdo  da  Gama .- 60. 

Aviary 15. 

B. 

Bad  characters 3. 

Ballot 57. 

Bamboos 48,  52. 

Bands 15. 

Bandstands 8,  15. 

Banyans 22. 

Bar  Fort 31,  32,  65. 

Barracks .4,22,25,29,32,33,44,65. 

Barracoons 60. 

Barrier 1,4-6,10,22,24,26,28,29,30,44,50,51,59. 

Bairo  da  Se   20. 

Bathing  beach 5. 

Bartuartede  nossa  senhora  de  Bomparto 32. 

Bella  Vista 26,  31. 

Bells 7,21,23,32. 

Bica  de  Lilau 44. 

Bishop 24,39,44,57,63,64. 

Bishop's  Bay 32,33*. 

Blockade 65. 

Boa  Vista 4,  66. 


72 

Boats , 7,52. 

Bomparto  Fort 4/25,82. 

Boulders  and  rocks 8,9,27,28,31,47,49. 

Boulevard 4,8,40,44,60. 

Boundary 6. 

Bribe 56. 

Bridges 51. 

Brotherhood  of  Mercy 34,38. 

C. 

Camilla's  Bay 4,5,29,31,41,43,44,60,65. 

Caho  Islands 30. 

Camoens 2,9,23,42,54,66. 

Camoens'  Gardens,  or  Camoens'  Grotto,  or  Casa  Gardens 

5,8-14,22,25,26,29,30,31,47. 

Campo 4,8,25,29,40,43,44. 

Canton 36,66. 

Capitao  de  Terra 57. 

Capitao  do  Mar 57. 

Captains  General 58. 

Cargo 7. 

Casa  Branca 10,51,52,59. 

Cathedral 19,20,25,29. 

Causeway 44. 

Cement  works 44. 

Cemeteries 4,5,19,26,28,30,40,50. 

Census 2-3. 

hentral  School  for  boys 38,40. 

„         „    girls 38,40. 

Cereal,  Baron  de 15. 

„       Palace 15,16. 

Chairs,  Old 17. 

,,        Sedan : 66- 

Chapel 17,31,32. 

Chaplains 64. 

Charter  of  Senate 57. 

Cheung  Chow 65. 

Chief  Justice  .  57,63. 


73 

China  Merchants  Steam  Navigation  Company 66. 

Chinese  Department .64. 

fort 51. 

Hospital 35-37. 

„         inhabitants 59. 

,,         newspaper 62. 

„         not  employed  and  kept  out 3,20. 

,,         population 61. 

„         quarters,  or  town,  or  houses.  .25,29,30,33,46,49,61. 

,,         road 50. 

,,         shops 62-65. 

Chuk  Sin  Tung  or  Ten  Tables 48. 

Chinnery,  George. : 26. 

Churches,  or  Chapels 2,18-26,35,37,55,64,65. 

Citizens 57. 

Classic  ground 10. 

Clergy 57. 

Cliff  Road 65. 

Climate 2. 

Clocks 19,20,21. 

Clubs 40. 

College  of  San  Jose 22-24. 

„        »       ,,     Paulo 19. 

„     Santa  Roza 38-39. 

Colowan 45, 64. 

Communication 64-66. 

Compradores,  Retired 51. 

Concilho  Administragao 17,64. 

Convent  of  Santa  Clara 37. 

Convents 32. 

Coolies 7,48,51,59. 

Coolie-trade 59-60. 

Council  of  Public  Instruction 63. 

„      Works 63. 

Council  Rooms 17. 

Councils 63. 

Court,  Supreme 15-16. 

Crimps,  Coolies,' 60. 


71 
Customs. 40,50,52,58,59,62,65. 

D. 

Director  of  Public  Works 63. 

„  „  „  ,  Office  of 17. 

Distance  from  Hongkong 1. 

Donna  Maria  II,  Fort  of .  . 22,28,29,31. 

Dredging 7,60. 

Dues  on  kerosene  and  opium,  and  general  goods 52. 

Double  Island,  or  Dumbbell  Island 64-65. 

Dutch 29,40,65. 

„     Company 58. 

,,     prisoners 4. 

„     ,  Victory  over  the 29,40. 

E. 

Eastern  Extension,  &c  Telegraph  Co 1C- 

Ecclesiastical  Government 64. 

East  India  Co., 58. 

English  Church 25. 

Escola  Central 38. 

„     Commercial 38. 

,,  Publica  de  Lingua  Portugucza  para  China 38. 

Estrada  da  Victoria 44. 

„  de  San  Francisco 4. 

Expenditure 61. 

F. 

Facade  of  San  Paulo . , 18-19,20,25. 

Farms , 47,56. 

Fat  Buddha 28. 

Felicidade,  Fonte  de 44. 

Fernandez,  Count,  Monument  to 12. 

Ferns.. .. 8,47. 

Fire.... 60. 

Fire  Brigade 64. 

Fishing  Junks 46,65. 

stakes. .  5. 


Flag 65. 

Flora,  The 44. 

Flowers 8,15,31,36. 

Fonte  da  Flora 43. 

„      „    Inveja 43. 

,,  de  Solidao 43. 

Foreign  firms 61. 

Forts 2,5,6,22,24,25,28,29-33,46,51,53,60,64,65. 

Fountains 8,15,43-44. 

Free  port 59. 

G. 

Gambling 61. 

Gap 25,30,32,43,44. 

Gardens 4,8-14,25,28,29,33,44. 

„         ,  Public 4,8-14,25,29. 

General  goods 62. 

Geographical  position 1,2. 

Goa 57,58. 

Goddess  of  Heaven 28. 

„    Mercy 28. 

„         „   Sailors 27-28. 

Gong,  Sounding  the, 62. 

Gonsalves 21,24. 

Government 62-64. 

,,  House 15. 

„  and  Public  Offices 15. 

„  Telegraph 16. 

Governors 17,33,44,58,59,63. 

Governor's  Council 63. 

„  Residences 4,15,43,44. 

Granite 47. 

Graves,  Chinese, 59. 

Green  Island  (Ilha  Verde) 10,19,20,29,30,44-45,52. 

Gremio  Militar 25,40. 

Grotto  of  the  Bamboo  Fairy 48. 

Guard  Houses 16,33,44,50. 

Guia  Fort 8,20,25,29,30,31-32,46,60. 


76 

Gunboats 64,65. 

Gunpowder,  Monopoly  of, 18. 

II. 

Happy  hunting  ground 3. 

Harbour 7. 

„         Department 64,65. 

Hermitage  of  Penha , 24-25. 

Heung  Shan  District , 1,56. 

Hills  and  mountains 

1,2,6,22,24,25,29,30,31,46,47,50,51,52,53,59,65. 

History 55-62. 

Honeysuckle 47. 

Hongkong 15,36,59,60,61,64. 

„         Canton  and  Macao  Steamboat  Co 45,64-66. 

Horta  de  Volong 61. 

Hospitals 25,33-34,35-37. 

Hot-springs  of  Yung  Mak 51-53. 

Hotels 66. 

Houses 2,3,4,9,61. 

I. 
Ilha  Verde,  See  Green  Island. 

Improvements,  Sanitary  and  otherwise 33,61. 

Independence  of  Macao 59,62. 

Inner  Harbour 

1,5,7,8,9,10,14,22,25,29,30,31,32,45,46,47,48,50,51,52,65. 

Insanitary  Districts 60-61. 

Inscriptions 27,48. 

Internacional  Hotel 63. 

Interpreters 63. 

Island  of  Heung  Shan 1. 

Islands 1,10,22,29,31,45,46,64-65. 

Isthmus 1,4,24,30,50. 

Italia  n  School 38. 

J. 
Japanese 19. 


77 

Jesuits 18,19,21,22,44,45. 

Jinrickshaws 66. 

Judicial  Department,  or  Junta  de  Justicia 15,63. 

Junta  de  Fazenda 15. 

Justice,  Chief, : , .  57,63. 

K. 

Kidnapping 5. 

Kerosene 18,52. 

Kong  Peng 46. 

L. 

Lampagao 54,55. 

Lanes 8,29. 

Lantao 10,31,65. 

Lappa 6,7,47-50,65. 

Latitude ~ 1. 

Leal  Senado,  See  Senate  House 

Leper  Asylum 34,37. 

Letter-boxes 16. 

Library 23,53. 

Lighthouses 8,25,30,32,40,65. 

Lizard 48. 

Ljungstedt 55,57. 

Long  Island 65. 

Longitude 1. 

Lusiads 9,10,11. 

Lyceu 40. 

M. 

Macao  Hotel 66. 

„     or  Makau  Rocks 28,31. 

Machiavellian  policy 56. 

Makau  Temple 28. 

Malau  Chow 46,65. 

Mandarins 2,3,56,61,62. 

Mansions 60. 

Market  gardens  and  gardeners 5. 


78 

Markets 18. 

Martyrs  in  Japan 17,20. 

Matsopo  Temple 27-28,46,65 

Meersberg 26. 

Menduca  Praya 7. 

Merchants  and  shipping  firms 7,61-62- 

Military 82,33,62-63,64. 

„        band 3. 

Hospital 25,29,30,33,-34,64. 

Minister  Plenipotentiary 62. 

Missionaries 19,26. 

Models  of  Junks 27,46. 

Mongha  Fort 22,24,29,30-31. 

„        Temple 28,59. 

Monkey  Island 46,65. 

Monopolies 18. 

Montanha  Russa 60. 

Monte 3,4,19,22,24,25,29-30,31. 

Monuments 29,40-43,55. 

Morrison,  Rev.  Robert 26. 

Mountains,  See  Hills. 

Municipal  Council 17,64. 

,,          Guard 57. 

Mural  tablets 21-22,26. 

N. 

Name  of  Macao,  Origin  of, 23,31. 

Naples,  Bay  of, 6. 

Naval  force 64. 

Necropolis 5,6,50. 

Newspapers 24.62. 

Ngan  Hang,  See  Silver  Valley. 

Nillau 24. 

Nine  Islands 31,65. 

Nullahs 47. 

Nuptial  portions 39. 


79 

O. 

Observatory 34,60. 

Officials 62-64. 

Offing,  The, 7. 

Opium 52. 

Organs 20. 

Orphans 38-39. 

Outer  Harbour 7,30,32. 

P. 

P.  &0 64. 

Paddy  fields 49,53. 

Padre's  Garden 43,44. 

Pagoda 48,51. 

Pai-lau, 49,50. 

Paintings,  Old, 17,20,21,24,54. 

Pakshaleng 30,50. 

Pedra  Areca 46. 

Pilgrimages 54. 

Penha 4,16,22,24-25,29,30,32,44,46,65. 

Peninsula 1>4,7. 

Pirates 56. 

Plague 61. 

„  burying  ground 4. 

Plazas 8. 

Police 64. 

Population 2-3,46,61. 

Porta  do  Cerco 6,24. 

Post  office 16. 

Praya  Grande 2,4,5,6-7,8,15,16,20,25,29,32,40,46. 

„  Menduca 32,48. 

Priests 23. 

Printing  Office 24. 

Prison 29. 

Procurador  of  Chinese  Affairs 15. 

Protestant  burying  ground 26,28,40. 

Provedor  dos  Defunctos , 11. 

Provincial  Council.  .  .  .  63. 


80 

Public  Buildings 2,6,15. 

„      Gardens 4,14,15,37,40-41. 

„      Offices 15. 

„      School  for  boys 38. 

,,     girls 38. 

Q. 

Queen  Elizabeth 55,56. 

„      of  Heaven,  Temple  of, 46. 

R. 

Rentals 58,61,62. 

Rents 2. 

Retreat,  A, 2. 

Revenue  and  Revenue  Department 61,63. 

Rhodomyrtis 48- 

Rice 50. 

Rickshaws 18,50,51,65. 

Ringing  Rocks 49. 

River 52. 

Roads 8,59. 

Rocks,  See  Boulders. 

Royalty,  Portuguese 17. 

Roza,  Sr 16. 

Rua  Central 62. 

S. 

Se,  See  Cathedral. 
Salt  farmer 18. 

„     fish 46. 

Sampans 7,46,47,48,50. 

San  Antonio  Church,  Gate  and  Green 3-4,21,60. 

„     Augostinho .33. 

,,     Domingos 25. 

„  „        ,  Market  of 18. 

„     Francisco  Barracks 25,33. 

„  „          Fort 4,25,29,32. 

Gate..  ..4. 


si 

San  Januario  Hospital 25,33-34,64. 

,,     Joao,  or  San   Chuen   Shan,  or  San  Shan,  or  Sancian, 

or  St.  John's,  or  San  Chuen. 53-55. 

„     College 22-24,25. 

„   Fort ....".' '.*.'; :.:. .:;; 4,29,32,33. 

„        ,,     Island  of, 53,55. 

„     Jose  Church. 21. 

„        „     College 21-24. 

„     Lazaro 25,61 . 

,,     Lorengo. 21-25. 

„     Michael  Church  and  Cemetery '. 29. 

„     Paulo. 18,22,25,30. 

„     Pedro  Fort . . . 32. 

„  Rafio  Hospital 34,35. 

Sanitary  Board 64. 

Sanitation. . 33,60-61,64. 

Santa  Casa  de  Miserecordia 34-35,38-39. 

Santa  Clara  Church  and  Convent 25,35,37. 

„  Rosa.  ...-. : 39. 

Santiago.  Fortaleza  de, 31. 

Schools 19,37-40. 

Secret  passages , 19,20. 

Secretariat 62-63. 

„  of  the  Municipal  Council 17. 

Secretary  General 62,63. 

„  of  Legation 62. 

Security  of  life  and  property 2. 

Sedan  chairs 66. 

Seminary  of  San  Paulo 19. 

Senate 23.39,40,57,58. 

„  House. 16-17,25. 

Senators 55,58. 

Senhouse.  Sir  Peter, 26. 

Sha  Mei 52. 

Shan  Chow  T'ong • 54. 

Shek  kok  Tsui 47. 

Shops,  &c 62,65. 

Shui  Chung. 50. 


82 

Silting  of  the  Bar  and  Harbour 7. 

Silver  Valley 48-50. 

Sisters  of  Mercy 44. 

Size  of  Macao 1. 

Solidao.  Fonte  de, 43. 

Sourcrout.  Chinese, 49. 

Sovereignty.  Right  of, 59. 

Spanish  rule 57. 

Squares 8,25. 

Squatters 33. 

Squeezes 61. 

Steamlaunches 45,46,51,52. 

Stores 62. 

Streets 2,7-8,60. 

Subterranean  passages, 19,20. 

Superstition 53. 

Supreme  Court , 63. 

T. 

Ta'aou 55. 

Taipa. ! . .  .9,10,16,22,32,46,52,64. 

„  Church 46. 

Tamao 53,54-55. 

Tamtsai 45. 

Tangao 55. 

Telegraph.  Government, 32. 

„  Offices 16,32. 

Temples 26-28,31,52,65. 

Ten  Tables.  The, 48,50. 

Tennis  Club s 5,40. 

Theatre , 40. 

Three  Precious  Buddhas. 28. 

Timor , 63. 

Toothpowder.  Chinese, 49. 

Trees 8,14,22,30. 

Tribute  to  Camoens.  A, 67. 

Ts'in  Shan..  .10.51,52. 


83 

Typa 46. 

Typhoons 19,60. 

U. 

Utilitarian  Chinese 53. 

V. 

Vegetable  gardens 30. 

Vegetables 30. 

Vessels 7,10,65. 

Vicar  General 64. 

Vicars 64. 

Viceroy  of  Canton 53. 

„        „   Goa 5£ 

Views 19,22,24-25,29. 

Villages 4,52,55. 

Viscount  de  San  Januario 16. 

Visits  of  Chinese  Mandarins 62. 

Volcano 53. 

W. 

Walks 4,7-50,65. 

Walls.  City, 3-4,29,30,32. 

Wells 44. 

Wharf 45,65. 

X. 

Xavier .21,54. 

Y. 

Yung  Mak.  Hot  Springs  of, 51-53. 


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